Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243



Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 19, Problem 10Q
Textbook Problem

Why are the tin(IV) halides more volatile than the tin(II) halides?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reason for the fact that ‘Tin (IV) halides are more volatile than Tin (II) halides’ is to be stated.

Concept introduction: A substance is said to be volatile if it evaporates easily at normal temperature. A less stable substance is more volatile as compared to more stable substance.

To determine: The reason for the fact, Tin (IV) halides are more volatile than Tin (II) halides.

Explanation of Solution


Tin exists in two oxidation states, II and IV. Halide compounds are formed by both these oxidation states.

Tin (II) halides are polymeric solids. In Tin (II) halides, the two electrons in the outer shell are tightly held by nucleus due to poor shielding of outer orbitals. As a result, it is difficult to remove these electrons...

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Chapter 19 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 19 - Although the earth was formed from the same...Ch. 19 - List two major industrial uses of hydrogen.Ch. 19 - How do the acidities of the aqueous solutions of...Ch. 19 - Diagonal relationships in the periodic table exist...Ch. 19 - Atomic size seems to play an important role in...Ch. 19 - Silicon carbide (SiC) is an extremely hard...Ch. 19 - In most compounds, the solid phase is denser than...Ch. 19 - What is nitrogen fixation? Give some examples of...Ch. 19 - All the Group 1A (1) and 2A (2) metals are...Ch. 19 - Why are the tin(IV) halides more volatile than the...Ch. 19 - Hydrogen is produced commercially by the reaction...Ch. 19 - The major industrial use of hydrogen is in the...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations describing the reaction...Ch. 19 - The electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride...Ch. 19 - Refer to Table 19-5 and give examples of the three...Ch. 19 - Label the following hydrides as ionic, covalent,...Ch. 19 - Many lithium salts are hygroscopic (absorb water),...Ch. 19 - What will be the atomic number of the next alkali...Ch. 19 - One harmful effect of acid rain is the...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations describing the reaction...Ch. 19 - What mass of barium is produced when molten BaCl2...Ch. 19 - How long will it take to produce 1.00 103 kg of...Ch. 19 - Beryllium shows some covalent characteristics in...Ch. 19 - What ions are found in hard water? What happens...Ch. 19 - Consider element 113. What is the expected...Ch. 19 - Thallium and indium form + 1 and + 3 oxidation...Ch. 19 - Boron hydrides were once evaluated for possible...Ch. 19 - Elemental boron is produced by reduction of boron...Ch. 19 - Write equations describing the reactions of Ga...Ch. 19 - Write a balanced equation describing the reaction...Ch. 19 - Al2O3 is amphoteric. What does this mean?Ch. 19 - What are three-centered bonds?Ch. 19 - Discuss the importance of the C8C and Si8Si bond...Ch. 19 - Besides the central atom, what are the differences...Ch. 19 - The following illustration shows the orbitals used...Ch. 19 - In addition to CO2, two additional stable oxides...Ch. 19 - Silicon is produced for the chemical and...Ch. 19 - Write equations describing the reactions of Sn...Ch. 19 - The compound Pb3O4 (red lead) contains a mixture...Ch. 19 - Tin forms compounds in the +2 and +4 oxidation...Ch. 19 - The oxyanion of nitrogen in which it has the...Ch. 19 - In each of the following pairs of substances, one...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the reactions...Ch. 19 - Arsenic reacts with oxygen to form oxides that...Ch. 19 - The Group 5A (15) elements can form molecules or...Ch. 19 - Compare the Lewis structures with the molecular...Ch. 19 - Many oxides of nitrogen have positive values for...Ch. 19 - Using data from Appendix 4 calculate H, S, and G...Ch. 19 - In many natural waters, nitrogen and phosphorus...Ch. 19 - Phosphate buffers are important in regulating the...Ch. 19 - Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is a triprotic acid,...Ch. 19 - Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is an effective grease...Ch. 19 - Use bond energies to estimate the maximum...Ch. 19 - The xerographic (dry writing) process was invented...Ch. 19 - Write a balanced equation describing the reduction...Ch. 19 - Complete and balance each of the following...Ch. 19 - Ozone is desirable in the upper atmosphere but...Ch. 19 - Ozone is a possible replacement for chlorine in...Ch. 19 - How can the paramagnetism of O2 be explained using...Ch. 19 - Describe the bonding in SO2 and SO3 using the...Ch. 19 - Write the Lewis structure for O2F2. Predict the...Ch. 19 - Give the Lewis structure, molecular structure, and...Ch. 19 - Fluorine reacts with sulfur to form several...Ch. 19 - Predict some possible compounds that could form...Ch. 19 - How does the oxyacid strength of the halogens vary...Ch. 19 - Explain why HF is a weak acid, whereas HCI, HBr,...Ch. 19 - The xenon halides and oxides are isoelectronic...Ch. 19 - For each of the following, write the Lewis...Ch. 19 - Although He is the second most abundant element in...Ch. 19 - The noble gas with the largest atmospheric...Ch. 19 - There is evidence that radon reacts with fluorine...Ch. 19 - For the RnFx compounds you predicted in Exercise...Ch. 19 - Hydrazine (N2H4) is used as a fuel in...Ch. 19 - The inert-pair effect is sometimes used to explain...Ch. 19 - How could you determine experimentally whether the...Ch. 19 - The resistivity (a measure of electrical...Ch. 19 - Slaked lime, Ca(OH)2 is used to soften hard water...Ch. 19 - EDTA is used as a complexing agent in chemical...Ch. 19 - Photogray lenses contain small embedded crystals...Ch. 19 - Draw Lewis structures for the AsCl4+ and AsCl6...Ch. 19 - Provide a reasonable estimate for the number of...Ch. 19 - In large doses, selenium is toxic. However, in...Ch. 19 - In the 1950s and 1960s, several nations conducted...Ch. 19 - What is a disproportionation reaction? Use the...Ch. 19 - Sulfur forms a wide variety of compounds in which...Ch. 19 - Halogens form a variety of covalent compounds with...Ch. 19 - Hydrogen gas is being considered as a fuel for...Ch. 19 - Molten CaC12 is electrolyzed for 8.00 h to produce...Ch. 19 - Calculate the solubility of Mg(OH)2 (Ksp = 8.9 ...Ch. 19 - Which of the following statement(s) is(are) true?...Ch. 19 - What is the hybridization of the underlined...Ch. 19 - Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be produced by thermal...Ch. 19 - What is the hybridization of the central atom in...Ch. 19 - What is the molecular structure for each of the...Ch. 19 - The atmosphere contains 9.0 106% Xe by volume at...Ch. 19 - Which of following statement(s) is/are true? a....Ch. 19 - Suppose 10.00 g of an alkaline earth metal reacts...Ch. 19 - From the information on the temperature stability...Ch. 19 - Lead forms compounds in the +2 and +4 oxidation...Ch. 19 - Many structures of phosphorus-containing compounds...Ch. 19 - Use bond energies (see Table 3-3) to show that the...Ch. 19 - A proposed two-step mechanism for the destruction...Ch. 19 - You travel to a distant, cold planet where the...Ch. 19 - Nitrogen gas reacts with hydrogen gas to form...Ch. 19 - A cylinder fitted with a movable piston initially...Ch. 19 - The heaviest member of the alkaline earth metals...Ch. 19 - lndium(III) phosphide is a semiconducting material...Ch. 19 - Although nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) is a thermally...Ch. 19 - While selenic acid has the formula H2SeO4 and thus...Ch. 19 - Captain Kirk has set a trap for the Klingons who...Ch. 19 - Use the symbols of the elements described in the...

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