   Chapter 19, Problem 114SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

(a) Is it easier to reduce water in acid or base? To evaluate this, consider the half-reaction 2H2O(ℓ) + 2 e− → 2 OH−(aq) + H2(g)E° = −0.83 V (b) What is the reduction potential for water for solutions at pH = 7 (neutral) and pH = 1 (acid)? Comment on the value of E° at pH = 1.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To determine the following.

It has to be identified whether it is easier to reduce water in acid or base.

2H2O (l) + 2e-   2OH-(aq) + H2(g)  E0 = -0.83 V

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge . It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Explanation

The given reaction is as follows.

2H2O (l) + 2e-   2OH-(aq) + H2(g)  E0 = -0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reduction potential of water at pH = 7 and pH =1 has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

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