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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Consider the following half-reactions:

images

  1. (a) Choosing from among the reactants in these half-reactions, identify the strongest and weakest oxidizing agents.
  2. (b) Which of the oxidizing agents listed is (are) capable of oxidizing Br(aq) to BrO3(aq) (in acid solution)?
  3. (c) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Cr2O72−(aq) with SO2(g) in acid solution Is this reaction product-favored or reactant-favored at equilibrium?
  4. (d) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Cr2O72−(aq) with Mn2+(aq). Is this reaction product-favored or reactant-favored at equilibrium?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)MnO4-(aq)+  8H+5e- Mn2+(aq)+4H2O(l)BrO3-(aq)+ 6H+ + 6e- Br-(aq)+3H2O(l)Cr2O72-(aq)+ 14H+ +6e- 2Cr3+(aq)+7H2O(l)NO3-(aq)+ 4H+ +3e- NO(g)+2H2O(l)SO42-(aq)+ 4H++2e- SO2(g)+2H2O(l)+1.51+1.47+1.33+0.96+0.20

The strongest and weakest oxidizing agent has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

Explanation

The given table:

Half reactionEo(V)MnO4-(aq)+  8H+5e- Mn2+(aq)+4H2O(l)BrO3-(aq)+ 6H+ + 6e- Br-(aq)+3H2O(l)Cr2O72-(aq)+ 14H+ +6e- 2Cr3+(aq)+7H2O(l)NO3-(aq)+ 4H+

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)MnO4-(aq)+  8H+5e- Mn2+(aq)+4H2O(l)BrO3-(aq)+ 6H+ + 6e- Br-(aq)+3H2O(l)Cr2O72-(aq)+ 14H+ +6e- 2Cr3+(aq)+7H2O(l)NO3-(aq)+ 4H+ +3e- NO(g)+2H2O(l)SO42-(aq)+ 4H++2e- SO2(g)+2H2O(l)+1.51+1.47+1.33+0.96+0.20

The oxidizing agents which are capable of oxidizing Br-(aq) to BrO3-(aq) in acid solution have to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)MnO4-(aq)+  8H+5e- Mn2+(aq)+4H2O(l)BrO3-(aq)+ 6H+ + 6e- Br-(aq)+3H2O(l)Cr2O72-(aq)+ 14H+ +6e- 2Cr3+(aq)+7H2O(l)NO3-(aq)+ 4H+ +3e- NO(g)+2H2O(l)SO42-(aq)+ 4H++2e- SO2(g)+2H2O(l)+1.51+1.47+1.33+0.96+0.20

A balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Cr2O72-(aq) with SO2(g) has to be given and to find whether this reaction is product – favoured or reactant – favoured at equilibrium.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)MnO4-(aq)+  8H+5e- Mn2+(aq)+4H2O(l)BrO3-(aq)+ 6H+ + 6e- Br-(aq)+3H2O(l)Cr2O72-(aq)+ 14H+ +6e- 2Cr3+(aq)+7H2O(l)NO3-(aq)+ 4H+ +3e- NO(g)+2H2O(l)SO42-(aq)+ 4H++2e- SO2(g)+2H2O(l)+1.51+1.47+1.33+0.96+0.20

A balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Cr2O72-(aq) with Mn2+(aq) has to be given and to find whether this reaction is product –favoured or reactant –favoured at equilibrium.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

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Chapter 19 Solutions

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Sect-19.8 P-19.11CYUSect-19.9 P-1.1ACPSect-19.9 P-1.2ACPSect-19.9 P-1.3ACPSect-19.9 P-2.1ACPSect-19.9 P-2.2ACPSect-19.9 P-2.3ACPSect-19.9 P-2.4ACPSect-19.9 P-2.5ACPCh-19 P-1PSCh-19 P-2PSCh-19 P-3PSCh-19 P-4PSCh-19 P-5PSCh-19 P-6PSCh-19 P-7PSCh-19 P-8PSCh-19 P-9PSCh-19 P-10PSCh-19 P-11PSCh-19 P-12PSCh-19 P-13PSCh-19 P-14PSCh-19 P-15PSCh-19 P-16PSCh-19 P-17PSCh-19 P-18PSCh-19 P-19PSCh-19 P-20PSCh-19 P-21PSCh-19 P-22PSCh-19 P-23PSCh-19 P-24PSCh-19 P-25PSCh-19 P-26PSCh-19 P-27PSCh-19 P-28PSCh-19 P-29PSCh-19 P-30PSCh-19 P-31PSCh-19 P-32PSCh-19 P-33PSCh-19 P-34PSCh-19 P-35PSCh-19 P-36PSCh-19 P-37PSCh-19 P-38PSCh-19 P-39PSCh-19 P-40PSCh-19 P-41PSCh-19 P-42PSCh-19 P-43PSCh-19 P-44PSCh-19 P-45PSCh-19 P-46PSCh-19 P-47PSCh-19 P-48PSCh-19 P-49PSCh-19 P-50PSCh-19 P-51PSCh-19 P-52PSCh-19 P-53PSCh-19 P-54PSCh-19 P-55PSCh-19 P-56PSCh-19 P-57GQCh-19 P-58GQCh-19 P-59GQCh-19 P-60GQCh-19 P-61GQCh-19 P-62GQCh-19 P-63GQCh-19 P-64GQCh-19 P-65GQCh-19 P-66GQCh-19 P-67GQCh-19 P-68GQCh-19 P-69GQCh-19 P-70GQCh-19 P-71GQCh-19 P-72GQCh-19 P-73GQCh-19 P-74GQCh-19 P-75GQCh-19 P-76GQCh-19 P-77GQCh-19 P-78GQCh-19 P-79GQCh-19 P-80GQCh-19 P-81GQCh-19 P-82GQCh-19 P-83GQCh-19 P-84GQCh-19 P-85GQCh-19 P-86GQCh-19 P-87GQCh-19 P-88GQCh-19 P-89GQCh-19 P-90GQCh-19 P-91GQCh-19 P-92GQCh-19 P-93GQCh-19 P-94GQCh-19 P-95GQCh-19 P-96GQCh-19 P-97GQCh-19 P-98GQCh-19 P-99GQCh-19 P-100GQCh-19 P-101GQCh-19 P-102GQCh-19 P-103GQCh-19 P-104GQCh-19 P-105ILCh-19 P-106ILCh-19 P-107ILCh-19 P-108ILCh-19 P-109ILCh-19 P-110ILCh-19 P-111SCQCh-19 P-112SCQCh-19 P-113SCQCh-19 P-114SCQCh-19 P-115SCQ

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