9th Edition
Mary K. Campbell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305961135




9th Edition
Mary K. Campbell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305961135
Textbook Problem

REFLECT AND APPLY Would you expect the citric acid cycle to be more or less active when a cell has a high ATP/ADP ratio and a high NADH/NAD1 ratio? Give the reason for your answer.

Interpretation Introduction


Whether the citric acid cycle is more active or less active in the presence of high NADH/NAD+ ratio and high ATP/ADP ratio is to be explained.

Concept introduction:

 Aerobic respiration is the type of metabolic process that takes place in the presence of excess of oxygen. Citric acid cycle, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation form an important part of the aerobic respiration.

 The citric acid cycle is also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle and takes place inside the mitochondria of the cell.


The starting compound for the citric acid cycle is pyruvate, which is further oxidized to release carbon dioxide and water. The pyruvate is first converted into coenzyme A and carbon dioxide. Two molecules of carbon dioxide are produced for a molecule of acetyl coenzyme A and, in this process, the electrons are transferred. The electron acceptor in all the cases is NAD+ (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) that gets converted into NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). One NAD+ molecule is equivalent to three molecules of ATP. In further reactions, one molecule of GTP (guanine triphosphate) is also produced, which is equivalent to one molecule of ATP (adenine triphosphate).

The adenine triphosphate is a high energy molecule because the hydrolysis of a phosphate group releases a tremendous amount of energy. After hydrolysis, the ATP is converted into ADP (adenosine diphosphate), which is a low energy molecule

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