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The Group 5A (15) elements can form molecules or ions that involve three, five, or six covalent bonds; NH 3 , AsCl 5 , and PF 6 − are examples. Draw the Lewis structure for each of these substances, and predict the molecular structure and hybridization for each. Why doesn’t NF 5 or NC 6 − form?

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 19, Problem 45E
Textbook Problem
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The Group 5A (15) elements can form molecules or ions that involve three, five, or six covalent bonds; NH3, AsCl5, and PF6 are examples. Draw the Lewis structure for each of these substances, and predict the molecular structure and hybridization for each. Why doesn’t NF5 or NC6 form?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The Lewis structures, hybridization and the molecular structures of NH3,AsCl5 and PF6 are to be stated. The reason of non-existence of NF5 and NCl6 is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The following steps are to be followed to determine the molecular structure of a given compound,

  • The central atom is identified.
  • Its valence electrons are determined.
  • The value 1e is added to the total number of valence electrons for each monovalent atom present.
  • The total number obtained is divided by 2 to find the number of electron pairs.
  • This further gives the hybridization of the given compound.

To determine: The Lewis structure, hybridization and the molecular structure of NH3,AsCl5 and PF6 ; the reason of non-existence of NF5 and NCl6 .

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

For AsCl5 molecule,

The central atom in AsCl5 is arsenic (As) . The atomic number of arsenic is 33 and its electronic configuration is,

1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p3

The valence electron of arsenic is 5 .

The atomic number of chlorine (Cl) is 17 and its electronic configuration is,

1s22s22p63s23p5

The valence electron of chlorine is 7 .

The total number of valence electrons are,

As+5Cl=(5+7×5)e=(40)e

The formula of number of electron pairs is,

X=V+M±C2

Where,

  • X is the number of electron pairs.
  • V is the valence electrons of central atom.
  • M is the number of monovalent atoms.
  • C is the charge on compound.

The number of electron pairs is,

X=V+M±C2X=102=5

This means that the central atom shows sp3d hybridization and should have a trigonal bipyramidal geometry.

The Lewis structure of AsCl5 is,

Figure 1

The molecule NH3 show sp3 hybridization and have a trigonal pyramidal geometry.

For NH3 molecule,

The central atom in NH3 is nitrogen (N) . The atomic number of nitrogen (N) is 7 and its electronic configuration is,

1s22s22p3

The valence electron of nitrogen is 5 .

The atomic number of hydrogen is 1 and its electronic configuration is,

1s1

The valence electron of hydrogen is 1 .

The total number of valence electrons are,

N+3H=(5+1×3)e=(8)e

The formula of number of electron pairs is,

X=V+M±C2

Where,

  • X is the number of electron pairs.
  • V is the valence electrons of central atom.
  • M is the number of monovalent atoms.
  • C is the charge on compound.

The number of electron pairs is,

X=V+M±C2X=82=4

This means that the central atom shows sp3 hybridization and should have a trigonal pyramidal geometry

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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