   Chapter 19, Problem 88GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Calculate equilibrium constants for the following reactions at 208 K. Indicate whether the equilibrium as written is reactant- or product-favored at equilibrium. (a) Co(s) + Ni2+(aq) ⇄ Co2+(aq) + Ni(s) (b) Fe3+(aq) + Cr2+(aq) ⇄ Cr3+(aq) + Fe2+(aq)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The equilibrium constant for the following reactions at 298 K has to be determined and also identify whether the equilibrium is a reactant or product favoured at equilibrium.

(a) Co(s) + Ni2+(aq) Co2+(aq) + Ni(s)

Concept introduction:

According to the first law of thermodynamics, the change in internal energy of a system is equal ti the heat added to the sysytem minus the work done by the system.

The equation is as follows.

ΔU = Q - WΔU = Change in internal energyQ = Heat added to the systemW=Work done by the system

In voltaic cell, the maximum cell potential is directly related to the free energy difference between the reactants and products in the cell.

ΔG0= -nFE0n = Number of moles transferred per mole of reactant and productsF = Faradayconstant=96485C/mol  E0= Volts = Work(J)/Charge(C)

The relation between standard cell potential and equilibrium constant is as follows.

lnK = nE00.0257 at 298K

Explanation

The given chemical reaction is as follows.

(a) Co(s) + Ni2+(aq) Co2+(aq) + Ni(s)

Let’s write an each half cell reaction.

At anode:Oxiation : Co2+(aq) + 2e  Co(s)At cathode:Reduction : Ni2+(aq) + 2eNi(s)

Let’s calculate the Ecello of the reaction.

Ecello= ECathode0- EAnode0= -0.25 V-(-0.28 V)= 0.03 V

Let’s calculate the ΔG0 for the reaction.

ΔG0= -nFE0n = 2F = 96485C/mol  E0= 0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The equilibrium constant for the following reactions at 298 K has to be determined and also identify whether the equilibrium is a reactant or product favoured at equilibrium.

(a) Co(s) + Ni2+(aq) Co2+(aq) + Ni(s)

(b) Fe3+(aq) + Cr2+(aq) Cr3+(aq) + Fe2+(aq)

Concept introduction:

According to the first law of thermodynamics, the change in internal energy of a system is equal ti the heat added to the sysytem minus the work done by the system.

The equation is as follows.

ΔU = Q - WΔU = Change in internal energyQ = Heat added to the systemW=Work done by the system

In voltaic cell, the maximum cell potential is directly related to the free energy difference between the reactants and products in the cell.

ΔG0= -nFE0n = Number of moles transferred per mole of reactant and productsF = Faradayconstant=96485C/mol  E0= Volts = Work(J)/Charge(C)

The relation between standard cell potential and equilibrium constant is as follows.

lnK = nE00.0257 at 298K

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