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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 19.4, Problem 3Q
Textbook Problem
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What mass of lithium ion batteries would produce the same amount of energy as the combustion of 15 gallons of gasoline?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The mass of lithium ion batteries which produce the same amount of energy as the combustion of 15gallons of gasoline has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

In voltaic cell, the maximum cell potential is directly related to the free energy difference between the reactants and products in the cell.

ΔG0= -nFE0n = Number of moles transferred per mole of reactant and productsF = Faradayconstant=96485C/mol  E0= Volts = Work(J)/Charge(C)

The relation between standard cell potential and equilibrium constant is as follows.

lnK = nE00.0257 at 298K

Energy conversions:

  • 1gallon=4qt
  • 1kg=1.057qt
  • 1MJ=kJ

Density=massvolume

Explanation of Solution

Energy contained in 15gallons of gasoline can be calculated as below:

=(15gallon)(4qt/1gallon)(1L/1.057qt)(0.70kg/L)(46MJkg×1000kJ1MJ)=60qt×0.662kg/qt(46MJkg×1000kJ1MJ)=1.83×106kJ

The energy contained in 15gallons of gasoline is calculated to be 1

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Chapter 19 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 19.3 - Which of the following statements is correct for...Ch. 19.3 - 2. You can determine if an automobile lead-based...Ch. 19.4 - (a) Rank the following metals in their ability to...Ch. 19.4 - The net reaction that occurs in a voltaic cell is...Ch. 19.4 - 2. Which metal in the following list is easiest to...Ch. 19.4 - Determine which of the following redox equations...Ch. 19.4 - A lithium ion battery produces a voltage of 3.6 V....Ch. 19.4 - Use the energy produced by the combustion of...Ch. 19.4 - What mass of lithium ion batteries would produce...Ch. 19.5 - A voltaic cell is set up with an aluminum...Ch. 19.5 - Check Your Understanding The half-cells Fe2+(aq,...Ch. 19.5 - 1. Calculate Ecell at 298 K for a cell involving...Ch. 19.6 - The following reaction has an E value of 0.76 V:...Ch. 19.6 - Calculate the equilibrium constant at 25 C for the...Ch. 19.6 - 1. In Appendix M, the following standard reduction...Ch. 19.7 - Predict the chemical reactions that will occur at...Ch. 19.7 - You have a solution containing several metal ions,...Ch. 19.8 - 1. Calculate the mass of O2 produced in the...Ch. 19.8 - 1. If you wish to convert 0.0100 mol of Au3+ (aq)...Ch. 19.8 - If an electrically insulating material, such as...Ch. 19.8 - Use standard reduction potentials to determine...Ch. 19.8 - Use standard reduction potentials to determine...Ch. 19.8 - The overall reaction for the production of Cu(OH)2...Ch. 19.8 - Assume the following electrochemical cell...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is constructed using the reaction...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is constructed using the reaction...Ch. 19 - The half-cells Fe2+(aq) | Fe(s) and O2(g) | H2O...Ch. 19 - The half cells Sn2+(aq) |Sn(s) and Cl2(g) |Cl(aq)...Ch. 19 - For each of the following electrochemical cells,...Ch. 19 - For each of the following electrochemical cells,...Ch. 19 - Use cell notation to depict an electrochemical...Ch. 19 - Use cell notation to depict an electrochemical...Ch. 19 - What are the similarities and differences between...Ch. 19 - What reactions occur when a lead storage battery...Ch. 19 - Calculate the value of E for each of the following...Ch. 19 - Calculate the value of E for each of the following...Ch. 19 - Balance each of the following unbalanced...Ch. 19 - Balance each of the following unbalanced...Ch. 19 - Consider the following half-reactions: (a) Based...Ch. 19 - Consider the following half-reactions: (a)...Ch. 19 - Which of the following elements is the best...Ch. 19 - From the following list, identify those elements...Ch. 19 - Which of the following ions is most easily...Ch. 19 - From the following list, identify the ions that...Ch. 19 - (a) Which halogen is most easily reduced in acidic...Ch. 19 - (a) Which ion is most easily oxidized to the...Ch. 19 - Calculate the potential delivered by a voltaic...Ch. 19 - Calculate the potential developed by a voltaic...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - Calculate rG and the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 19 - Calculate rG and the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 19 - Use standard reduction potentials (Appendix M) for...Ch. 19 - Use the standard reduction potentials (Appendix M)...Ch. 19 - Use the standard reduction potentials (Appendix M)...Ch. 19 - Use the standard reduction potentials (Appendix M)...Ch. 19 - Diagram the apparatus used to electrolyze molten...Ch. 19 - Diagram the apparatus used to electrolyze aqueous...Ch. 19 - Which product, O2 or F2, is more likely to form at...Ch. 19 - Which product, Ca or H2, is more likely to form at...Ch. 19 - An aqueous solution of KBr is placed in a beaker...Ch. 19 - An aqueous solution of Na2S is placed in a beaker...Ch. 19 - In the electrolysis of a solution containing...Ch. 19 - In the electrolysis of a solution containing...Ch. 19 - Electrolysis of a solution of CuSO4(aq) to give...Ch. 19 - Electrolysis of a solution of Zn(NO3)2(aq) to give...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell can be built using the reaction...Ch. 19 - Assume the specifications of a Ni-Cd voltaic cell...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Balance the following equations. (a) Zn(s) +...Ch. 19 - Magnesium metal is oxidized, and silver ions are...Ch. 19 - You want to set up a series of voltaic cells with...Ch. 19 - You want to set up a series of voltaic cells with...Ch. 19 - Which of the following reactions is (arc) product...Ch. 19 - In the table of standard reduction potentials,...Ch. 19 - In the table of standard reduction potentials,...Ch. 19 - Four voltaic cells are set up. In each, one...Ch. 19 - The following half-cells are available: (i)...Ch. 19 - The reaction occurring in the cell in which Al2O3...Ch. 19 - A cell is constructed using the following...Ch. 19 - A potential of 0.142 V is recorded (under standard...Ch. 19 - What is the value of E for the following...Ch. 19 - The standard potential, E, for the reaction of...Ch. 19 - An electrolysis cell for aluminum production...Ch. 19 - Electrolysis of molten NaCl is done in cells...Ch. 19 - A current of 0.0100 A is passed through a solution...Ch. 19 - A current of 0.44 A is passed through a solution...Ch. 19 - The total charge that ran he delivered by a large...Ch. 19 - Chlorine gas is obtained commercially by...Ch. 19 - Write equations for the half-reactions that occur...Ch. 19 - The products formed in the electrolysis of aqueous...Ch. 19 - Predict the products formed in the electrolysis of...Ch. 19 - In the electrolysis of HNO3(aq), hydrogen is...Ch. 19 - The metallurgy of aluminum involves electrolysis...Ch. 19 - Two half-cells, Pt | Fe3+(aq. 0.50 M), Fe2+(aq,...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is set up utilizing the reaction...Ch. 19 - Calculate the cell potential for the following...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell set up utilizing the reaction Cu(s)...Ch. 19 - Two Ag+(aq) | Ag(s) half-cells are constructed....Ch. 19 - Calculate equilibrium constants for the following...Ch. 19 - Calculate equilibrium constants for the following...Ch. 19 - Use the table of standard reduction potentials...Ch. 19 - Use the table of standard reduction potentials...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Balance the following equations involving organic...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is constructed in which one...Ch. 19 - An expensive but lighter alternative to the lead...Ch. 19 - The specifications for a lead storage battery...Ch. 19 - Manganese may play an important role in chemical...Ch. 19 - You want to use electrolysis to plate a...Ch. 19 - Iron(II) ion undergoes a disproportionation...Ch. 19 - Copper(I) ion disproportionates to copper metal...Ch. 19 - The simplest way to write the reaction for...Ch. 19 - A lithium-ion camera battery is rated at 7500 mAh....Ch. 19 - Consider an electrochemical cell based on the...Ch. 19 - An old method of measuring the current flowing in...Ch. 19 - A silver coulometer (Study Question 106) was used...Ch. 19 - Four metals, A, B, C, and D, exhibit the following...Ch. 19 - A solution of KI is added dropwise to a pale blue...Ch. 19 - The amount of oxygen, O2, dissolved in a water...Ch. 19 - Fluorinated organic compounds are used as...Ch. 19 - The free energy change for a reaction, rG, is the...Ch. 19 - A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell operates on the simple...Ch. 19 - (a) Is it easier to reduce water in acid or base?...Ch. 19 - Living organisms derive energy from the oxidation...

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