   Chapter 2, Problem 113GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Although carbon-12 is now used as the standard for atomic weights, this has not always been the case Early attempts at classification used hydrogen as the standard, with the weight of hydrogen being set equal to 1.0000. Later attempts defined atomic weights using oxygen (with a weight of 16.0000). In each instance, the atomic weights of the other elements were defined relative to these masses. (To answer this question, you need more precise data on current atomic weights: H, 1.00794; O, 15.9994.)(a) If H = 1.0000 u was used as a standard for atomic weights, what would the atomic weight of oxygen be? What would be the value of Avogadro’s number under these circumstances?(b) Assuming the standard is O = 16.0000, determine the value for the atomic weight of hydrogen and the value of Avogadro’s number.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atomic weight of oxygen if the H=1u is the standard and its respective Avogadro’s numbers are needed to be determined.

The atomic weight of hydrogen if the O=16u is the standard and its respective Avogadro’s numbers are needed to be determined.

Concept introduction:

The atomic weights of H and O are 1.00794g and 15.9994g  respectively.

Weights of atoms are calculated by taking the relative mass of a standard atom.

Explanation

The precise atomic weights of H and O are 1.00794g and 15.9994g respectively (carbon atom as standard).

If hydrogen is used as the standard atom (H=1u) for calculating atomic weights of other atoms, then the atomic weight of oxygen will be,

15.9994g1.00794g/1u=15.873u

According to Avogadro’s number, the 1.00794g of hydrogen contains 6

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atomic weight of oxygen if the H=1u is the standard and its respective Avogadro’s numbers are needed to be determined.

The atomic weight of hydrogen if the O=16u is the standard and its respective Avogadro’s numbers are needed to be determined.

Concept introduction:

The atomic weights of H and O are 1.00794g and 15.9994g  respectively.

Weights of atoms are calculated by taking the relative mass of a standard atom.

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