   Chapter 2, Problem 133GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Empirical and molecular formulas.(a) Fluorocarbonyl hypofluorite is composed of 14.6% C, 30.0% O, and 46.3% F. The molar mass of the compound is 82 g/mol. Determine the empirical and molecular formulas of the compound,(b) Azulene, a beautiful blue hydrocarbon, is 93.71% C and has a molar mass of 128.16 g/mol. What are the empirical and molecular formulas of azulene?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The empirical and molecular formulas for the given fluorocarbonyl hypofluorite should be determined.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Equation for finding Molecular formula from the empirical formula,

MolarmassEmpiricalformula mass × Empirical formula

• Equation for number moles from mass and molar mass,

Numberofmoles=MassingramsMolarmass

• Mass percent of elements of a compound is the ratio of mass of element to the mass of whole compound and multiplied with hundred.
Explanation

Given: Mass percent of carbon, oxygen and Florine in the given compound fluorocarbonyl hypofluorite are 14.6%,39.0%and46.3% respectively.

Mass percent of an element means, 100g of compound contains that mass percent of an element in grams. Therefore, mass of  14.6g carbon 39.0g of oxygen and 46.3 g of F are present respectively in 100g of fluorocarbonyl hypofluorite.

Equation for number moles from mass and molar mass is,

Numberofmoles=MassingramsMolarmass

Therefore, the number of moles of C is,

Numberofmoles=14.6g12.01g/mol=1.215mol

The number of moles of oxygen is,

Numberofmoles=39g16g/mol=2.437mol

The number of moles of F is,

Numberofmoles=46.3g19g/mol=2.437mol

So, the mole ratio between elements in fluorocarbonyl hypofluorite is,

C:F:O=1

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The empirical and molecular formulas for the given azulene should be determined.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Equation for finding Molecular formula from the empirical formula,

MolarmassEmpiricalformula mass × Empirical formula

• Equation for number moles from mass and molar mass,

Numberofmoles=MassingramsMolarmass

• Mass percent of elements of a compound is the ratio of mass of element to the mass of whole compound and multiplied with hundred.

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