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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 2, Problem 162IL
Textbook Problem

When analyzed, an unknown compound gave these experimental results: C, 54.0%; h, 6.00%; and O, 40.0%. Four different students used these values to calculate the empirical formulas shown here. Which answer is correct? Why did some students not get the correct answer?

  1. (a) C4H5O2
  2. (b) C5H7O3
  3. (c) C7H10O4
  4. (d) C9H12O5

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Chapter 2 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 2.1 - 1. What is the mass of an iron atom with 30...Ch. 2.2 - Verify that the atomic weight of chlorine is...Ch. 2.2 - Neon has three stable isotopes, one with a small...Ch. 2.5 - Give the number and identity of the constituent...Ch. 2.5 - (a) Write the formulas of all neutral ionic...Ch. 2.6 - What mass of gold, Au, contains 2.6 1024 atoms?Ch. 2.6 - If you have 454 g of citric acid (H3C6H5O7), what...Ch. 2.7 - 1. Express the composition of ammonium carbonate,...Ch. 2.7 - 1. What is the empirical formula of naphthalene,...Ch. 2.7 - Gallium oxide, GaxOy forms when gallium is combine...Ch. 2.7 - Hydrated nickel(II) chloride is a beautiful green,...Ch. 2.8 - The mass spectrum of phosphorus tribromide is...Ch. 2.8 - How many neutrons are there in atoms of 18O? In...Ch. 2.8 - There are three stable isotopes of oxygen (16O,...Ch. 2.8 - Arsenic is found widely in the environment and is...Ch. 2.8 - Salvarsan was long thought to be a single...Ch. 2.8 - To determine the density of atmospheric nitrogen....Ch. 2.8 - The density of a mixture of gases may be...Ch. 2.8 - Atmospheric argon is a mixture of three stable...Ch. 2.8 - Given that the density of argon is 1.78 g/L under...Ch. 2 - What are the three fundamental particles from...Ch. 2 - Define mass number. What is the difference between...Ch. 2 - An atom has a very small nucleus surrounded by an...Ch. 2 - A gold atom has a radius of 145 pm. If you could...Ch. 2 - Give the complete symbol(ZAX), including atomic...Ch. 2 - Give the complete symbol(ZAX), including atomic...Ch. 2 - How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are...Ch. 2 - Atomic structure. (a) The synthetic radioactive...Ch. 2 - From cathode ray experiments, J. J. Thomson...Ch. 2 - In 1886 Eugene Goldstein observed positively...Ch. 2 - Marie Curie was born in Poland but studied and...Ch. 2 - Early in the 1800s John Dalton proposed that an...Ch. 2 - The mass of an 16 O atom is 15.995 u. What is its...Ch. 2 - What is the mass of one 16O atom, in grams? (The...Ch. 2 - Cobalt has three radioactive isotopes used in...Ch. 2 - Naturally occurring silver exists as two isotopes...Ch. 2 - Name and describe the composition of the three...Ch. 2 - Which of the following are isotopes of element X,...Ch. 2 - Thallium has two stable isotopes, 203TIand 205Tl....Ch. 2 - Strontium has four stable isotopes. Strontium-84...Ch. 2 - Verify that the atomic weight of lithium is 6.94,...Ch. 2 - Verify that the atomic weight of magnesium is...Ch. 2 - Gallium has two naturally occurring isotopes, 69Ga...Ch. 2 - Europium has two stable isotopes, 151Eu and 153Eu,...Ch. 2 - Titanium and thallium have symbols that are easily...Ch. 2 - In Groups 4A-6A, there are several elements whose...Ch. 2 - How many periods of the periodic table have 8...Ch. 2 - How many elements occur in the seventh period?...Ch. 2 - Select answers to the questions listed below from...Ch. 2 - Give the name and chemical symbol for the...Ch. 2 - Classify the following elements as metals,...Ch. 2 - Here are symbols for five of the seven elements...Ch. 2 - A model of nitric acid is illustrated here. Write...Ch. 2 - A model of the amino acid asparagine is...Ch. 2 - What is the charge on the common monatomic ions of...Ch. 2 - What is the charge on the common monatomic ions of...Ch. 2 - Give the symbol, including the correct charge, for...Ch. 2 - Give the symbol, including the correct charge, for...Ch. 2 - When a potassium atom becomes a monatomic ion, how...Ch. 2 - When oxygen and sulfur atoms become monatomic...Ch. 2 - What are the charges on the ions in an ionic...Ch. 2 - What are the charges of the ions in an ionic...Ch. 2 - Give the formula and the number of each ion that...Ch. 2 - Give the formula and the number of each ion that...Ch. 2 - Cobalt forms Co2+ and Co3+ ions. Write the...Ch. 2 - Platinum is a transition element and forms Pt2+...Ch. 2 - Which of the following are correct formulas for...Ch. 2 - Which of the following are correct formulas for...Ch. 2 - Name each of the following ionic compounds: (a)...Ch. 2 - Name each of the following ionic compounds: (a)...Ch. 2 - Give the formula for each of the following ionic...Ch. 2 - Give the formula for each of the following ionic...Ch. 2 - Write the formulas for the four ionic compounds...Ch. 2 - Write the formulas for the four ionic compounds...Ch. 2 - Sodium ions, Na+, form ionic compounds with...Ch. 2 - Consider the two ionic compounds NaCl and CaO. In...Ch. 2 - Name each of the following binary, nonionic...Ch. 2 - Name each of the following binary, nonionic...Ch. 2 - Give the formula for each of the following...Ch. 2 - Give the formula for each of the following...Ch. 2 - Calculate the mass, in grams, of each the...Ch. 2 - Calculate the mass, in grams, of each the...Ch. 2 - Calculate the amount (moles) represented by each...Ch. 2 - Calculate the amount (moles) represented by each...Ch. 2 - You are given 1.0-g samples of He, Fe, Li, Si, and...Ch. 2 - You are given 0.10-g samples of K, Mo, Cr, and Al....Ch. 2 - Analysis of a 10.0-g sample of apatite (a major...Ch. 2 - A semiconducting material is composed of 52 g of...Ch. 2 - Calculate the molar mass of each of the following...Ch. 2 - Calculate the molar mass of each of the following...Ch. 2 - Calculate the molar mass of each hydrated...Ch. 2 - Calculate the molar mass of each hydrated...Ch. 2 - What mass is represented by 0.0255 mol of each of...Ch. 2 - Assume you have 0.123 mol of each of the following...Ch. 2 - Sulfur trioxide, SO3, is made industrially in...Ch. 2 - How many ammonium ions and how many sulfate ions...Ch. 2 - Acetaminophen, whose structure is drawn below, is...Ch. 2 - An Alka-Seltzer tablet contains 324 mg of aspirin...Ch. 2 - Calculate the mass percent of each element in the...Ch. 2 - Calculate the mass percent of each element in the...Ch. 2 - Calculate the mass percent of copper in CuS,...Ch. 2 - Calculate the mass percent of titanium in the...Ch. 2 - Succinic acid occurs in fungi and lichens. Its...Ch. 2 - An organic compound has the empirical formula...Ch. 2 - Complete the following table:Ch. 2 - Complete the following table:Ch. 2 - Acetylene is a colorless gas used as a fuel in...Ch. 2 - A large family of boron-hydrogen compounds has the...Ch. 2 - Cumene, a hydrocarbon, is a compound composed only...Ch. 2 - In 2006, a Russian team discovered an interesting...Ch. 2 - Mandelic acid is an organic acid composed of...Ch. 2 - Nicotine, a poisonous compound found in tobacco...Ch. 2 - A compound containing xenon and fluorine was...Ch. 2 - Elemental sulfur (1.256 g) is combined with...Ch. 2 - Epsom salt is used in tanning leather and in...Ch. 2 - You combine 1.25 g of germanium, Ge, with excess...Ch. 2 - The mass spectrum of nitrogen dioxide is...Ch. 2 - The mass spectrum of phosphoryl chloride. POF3, is...Ch. 2 - The mass spectrum of CH3Cl is illustrated here....Ch. 2 - The highest mass peaks in the mass spectrum of Br2...Ch. 2 - Fill in the blanks in the table (one column per...Ch. 2 - Potassium has three naturally occurring isotopes...Ch. 2 - Crossword Puzzle: In the 2 2 box shown here, each...Ch. 2 - The following chart shows a general decline in...Ch. 2 - Copper atoms. (a) What is the average mass of one...Ch. 2 - Which of the following is impossible? (a) silver...Ch. 2 - Reviewing the periodic table. (a) Name the element...Ch. 2 - Identify two nonmetallic elements that have...Ch. 2 - In each case, decide which represents more mass:...Ch. 2 - The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of iron for...Ch. 2 - Put the following elements in order from smallest...Ch. 2 - When a sample of phosphorus burns in air, the...Ch. 2 - Although carbon-12 is now used as the standard for...Ch. 2 - A reagent occasionally used in chemical synthesis...Ch. 2 - Write formulas for all of the compounds that be...Ch. 2 - How many electrons are in a strontium atom (Sr)?...Ch. 2 - Which of the following compounds has the highest...Ch. 2 - Which of the following samples has the largest...Ch. 2 - The structure of one of the bases in DNA, adenine,...Ch. 2 - Ionic and molecular compounds of the halogens. (a)...Ch. 2 - A drop of water has a volume of about 0.050 mL....Ch. 2 - Capsaicin, the compound that gives the hot taste...Ch. 2 - wCalculate the molar mass and the mass percent of...Ch. 2 - Write the molecular formula and calculate the...Ch. 2 - Malic acid, an organic acid found in apples,...Ch. 2 - Your doctor has diagnosed you as being anemicthat...Ch. 2 - A compound composed of iron and carbon monoxide,...Ch. 2 - Ma huang, an extract from the ephedra species of...Ch. 2 - Saccharin, a molecular model of which is shown...Ch. 2 - Name each of the following compounds and indicate...Ch. 2 - Write the formula for each of the following pounds...Ch. 2 - Complete the table by placing symbols, formulas,...Ch. 2 - Empirical and molecular formulas. (a)...Ch. 2 - Cacodyl, a compound containing arsenic, was...Ch. 2 - The action of bacteria on meat and fish produces a...Ch. 2 - In the laboratory you combine 0.125 g of nickel...Ch. 2 - A compound called MMT was once used to boost the...Ch. 2 - Elemental phosphorus is made by heating calcium...Ch. 2 - Chromium is obtained by heating chromium(III)...Ch. 2 - Stibnite, Sb2S3, is a dark gray mineral from which...Ch. 2 - Direct reaction of iodine (I2) and chlorine (Cl2)...Ch. 2 - In a reaction, 2.04 g of vanadium combined with...Ch. 2 - Iron pyrite, often called fools gold, has the...Ch. 2 - Which of the following statements about 57.1 g of...Ch. 2 - The formula of barium molybdate is BaMoO4. Which...Ch. 2 - A metal M forms a compound with the formula MCl4....Ch. 2 - Pepto-Bismol, which can help provide relief for an...Ch. 2 - The weight percent of oxygen in an oxide that has...Ch. 2 - The mass of 2.50 mol of a compound with the...Ch. 2 - The elements A and Z combine to produce two...Ch. 2 - Polystyrene can be prepared by heating styrene...Ch. 2 - A sample of hemoglobin is found to be 0.335% iron....Ch. 2 - Consider an atom of 64Zn. (a) Calculate the...Ch. 2 - Estimating the radius of a lead atom. (a) You are...Ch. 2 - A piece of nickel foil, 0.550 mm thick and 1.25 cm...Ch. 2 - Uranium is used as a fuel, primarily in the form...Ch. 2 - In an experiment, you need 0.125 mol of sodium...Ch. 2 - Mass spectrometric analysis showed that there are...Ch. 2 - If Epsom salt, MgSO4 x H2O, is heated to 250 C,...Ch. 2 - The alum used in cooking is potassium aluminum...Ch. 2 - Tin metal (Sn) and purple iodine (I2) combine to...Ch. 2 - When analyzed, an unknown compound gave these...Ch. 2 - Two general chemistry students working together in...Ch. 2 - To find the empirical formula of tin oxide, you...Ch. 2 - Identify, from the list below, the information...Ch. 2 - Consider the plot of relative element abundances...Ch. 2 - The photo here depicts what happens when a coil of...Ch. 2 - A jar contains some number of jelly beans. To find...

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