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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Write a chemical equation showing reactants, products, and catalysts needed (if any) for the reaction of propene with each of the reactants in Problem 13-71. Use Markovnikov’s rule as needed.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Chemical equation that shows reactants, product and catalyst needed for the reaction of propene with chlorine based on Markovnikov’s rule has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Chemical reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms are added to each carbon atom of a carbon‑carbon multiple bond in a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative is known as addition reaction.

In this reaction no atoms or group of atoms are removed. Instead the unsaturated bond is reduced to saturated bond. A general scheme for addition reaction of alkene can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 2, Problem 2.75EP , additional homework tip  1

Halogenation reaction is an example of addition reaction. In this reaction, the halogen atoms are added across the double bonds. Chlorination and bromination are the most commonly used halogenation reaction. For halogenation reaction, no catalyst is required.

Markovnikov’s rule:

When an unsymmetrical molecule of formula HQ to an unsymmeterical alkene, the hydrogen atom from HQ gets attached to the unsaturated carbon atom which has the most hydrogen atoms. In other words, it can be said that the hydrogen atom gets attached to the unsaturated carbon atom that is least substituted.

Explanation

Propene reacts with chlorine to give halogenated product. This is an example of addition reaction. Halogenation of propene using chlorine results in the formation of 1,2-dichloropropane as product. Markovnikov’s rule is not applicable here because the molecule that gets added up is a symmetrical one...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Chemical equation that shows reactants, product and catalyst needed for the reaction of propene with hydrogen chloride based on Markovnikov’s rule has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Chemical reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms are added to each carbon atom of a carbon‑carbon multiple bond in a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative is known as addition reaction.

In this reaction no atoms or group of atoms are removed. Instead the unsaturated bond is reduced to saturated bond. A general scheme for addition reaction of alkene can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 2, Problem 2.75EP , additional homework tip  2

Asymmetrical addition reaction is the one in which two different atoms or group of atoms are substituted across the multiple bond resulting in the formation of product. No catalyst is required for this reaction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Chemical equation that shows reactants, product and catalyst needed for the reaction of propene with hydrogen based on Markovnikov’s rule has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Chemical reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms are added to each carbon atom of a carbon‑carbon multiple bond in a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative is known as addition reaction.

In this reaction no atoms or group of atoms are removed. Instead the unsaturated bond is reduced to saturated bond. A general scheme for addition reaction of alkene can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 2, Problem 2.75EP , additional homework tip  3

Hydrogenation is a type of addition reaction. In this reaction, hydrogen atoms are added across the multiple bonds present in organic molecule. In case of alkenes to undergo hydrogenation, heating the alkene with presence of catalyst such as nickel or platinum is required.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Chemical equation that shows reactants, product and catalyst needed for the reaction of propene with hydrogen bromide based on Markovnikov’s rule has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Chemical reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms are added to each carbon atom of a carbon‑carbon multiple bond in a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative is known as addition reaction.

In this reaction no atoms or group of atoms are removed. Instead the unsaturated bond is reduced to saturated bond. A general scheme for addition reaction of alkene can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 2, Problem 2.75EP , additional homework tip  4

Asymmetrical addition reaction is the one in which two different atoms or group of atoms are substituted across the multiple bond resulting in the formation of product. No catalyst is required for this reaction.

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