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2-91 These are the first two ionization energy for lithium: Li(g) → Li + (g) + e - (g) Ionization energy = 523 kJ/mol Li + (g) → Li 2 + (g) + e - (g) Ionization energy = 7298 kJ/mol (a) Explain the large increase in ionization energy that occurs for the removal of the second electron. (b) The radius of Li is 78 pm (1 pm = 10-12 m) while that of a lithium atom, Li, is 152 pm. Exp lain why the radius of Li is so much smaller than the radius of Li.

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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 2, Problem 2.91P
Textbook Problem
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2-91 These are the first two ionization energy for lithium:

Li(g) → Li+(g) + e-(g) Ionization energy = 523 kJ/mol

Li+(g) → Li2+(g) + e-(g) Ionization energy = 7298 kJ/mol

(a) Explain the large increase in ionization energy that occurs for the removal of the second electron.

(b) The radius of Li is 78 pm (1 pm = 10-12 m) while that of a lithium atom, Li, is 152 pm. Exp lain why the radius of Li is so much smaller than the radius of Li.

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The large increase in ionization energy that occurs for the removal of the second electron should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy is defined as the energy needed to remove an electron from the outermost shell of an atom or an ion.

Explanation of Solution

Given Information:

The first two ionization energy (IE) for lithium are given as follows:

Li (g)Li+(g) + e-(g)                                      IE = 523 KJ/mol Li (g)Li2+(g) + e-(g)                                                                            IE = 7298 KJ/mol                                       

The large increase in ionization energy for the removal of the second electron i

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

(b)

The reason for the smaller radius of Li+ as compared to Li should be explained.

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Chapter 2 Solutions

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
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Ch. 2 - 2-11 Name these elements (try not to look at a...Ch. 2 - 2-12 The elements game, Part 1. Name and give the...Ch. 2 - 2-13 The elements game. Part II. Name and give the...Ch. 2 - 2-14 The elements game, Part III. Give the names...Ch. 2 - 2-15 Write the formulas of compounds in which the...Ch. 2 - 2-16 Write the formulas of compounds in which the...Ch. 2 - 2-17 How does Dalton’s atomic theory explain: (a)...Ch. 2 - 2-18 When 2.16 g of mercuric oxide is heated, it...Ch. 2 - 2-19 The compound carbon monoxide contains 42.9%...Ch. 2 - 2-20 Calculate the percentage of hydrogen and...Ch. 2 - 2-21 Answer true or false. (a) A proton and an...Ch. 2 - 2-22 Where in an atom are these subatomic...Ch. 2 - 2-23 It has been said, “The number of protons...Ch. 2 - 2-24 What is the mass number of an atom with: (a)...Ch. 2 - 2-25 Name and give the symbol for each element in...Ch. 2 - 2-26 Given these mass numbers and number of...Ch. 2 - 2-27 If each atom in Problem 2-26 acquired two...Ch. 2 - 2-28 How many neutrons are in: (a) a carbon atom...Ch. 2 - 2-29 How many protons and how many neutrons does...Ch. 2 - 2.30 How many neutrons and protons are in each...Ch. 2 - 2-31 Tin-118 is one of the isotopes of tin. 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(a) To say that “energy...Ch. 2 - 2-50 How many periods of the Periodic Table have...Ch. 2 - 2-51 What is the correlation between the group...Ch. 2 - 2-52 Given your answer to Problem 2-51, write the...Ch. 2 - 2-53 Write the condensed ground-state electron...Ch. 2 - 2-54 Write the Lewis dot structure for each...Ch. 2 - 2-55 Write the condensed ground-state electron...Ch. 2 - 2-56 Write the Lewis dot structure for each...Ch. 2 - 2-57 What are the similarities and differences in...Ch. 2 - 2-58 Silicon, atomic number 14, is in Group 4A....Ch. 2 - 2-59 You are presented with a Lewis dot structure...Ch. 2 - 2-60 The electron configurations for the elements...Ch. 2 - 2-61 Answer true or false. (a) Elements in the...Ch. 2 - 2-62 Why do the elements in column 1A of the...Ch. 2 - 2-63 Answer true or false. (a) Ionization energy...Ch. 2 - 2-64 Consider the elements B, C, and N. Using only...Ch. 2 - 2-65 Account for the following observations. 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The...Ch. 2 - 2-86 (a) What are the charges of an electron, a...Ch. 2 - 2-87 What is the name of this element, and how...Ch. 2 - 2-88 Based on the data presented in Figure 2-16,...Ch. 2 - 2-89 Assume that a new element has been discovered...Ch. 2 - 2-90 Explain why the sizes of atoms change when...Ch. 2 - 2-91 These are the first two ionization energy for...Ch. 2 - 2-92 Which has the largest radius: O2-, F- or F?...Ch. 2 - 2-93 Arrange the following elements in order of...Ch. 2 - 2-94 Using your knowledge of trends in element...Ch. 2 - 2-95 Name the elements in Group 3A. 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