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The pH of human stomach acid ranges from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas a healthy esophagus has a pH of approximately 7.0. In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), often called acid reflux, stomach acid flows backward from the stomach into the esophagus. Repeated episodes in which esophageal pH goes below 4.0, considered clinical acid reflux, can result in bleeding ulcers and damage to the esophageal lining. The data in the Figure, from a patient with GERD, show esophageal pH during a sleeping reflux event. What is the molar concentration of H + and OH - ions: (a) during sleep after the reflux event; and (b) during the peak of the reflux event? Be sure to include the correct concentration units in your answer. Source: Based on T. Demeester et al. 1976. Patterns of gastroesophageal reflux in health and disease. Annals of Surgery 184:459–469.

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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305389892
BuyFind

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305389892

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Chapter
Section
Chapter 2, Problem 2ITD
Textbook Problem
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The pH of human stomach acid ranges from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas a healthy esophagus has a pH of approximately 7.0. In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), often called acid reflux, stomach acid flows backward from the stomach into the esophagus. Repeated episodes in which esophageal pH goes below 4.0, considered clinical acid reflux, can result in bleeding ulcers and damage to the esophageal lining. The data in the Figure, from a patient with GERD, show esophageal pH during a sleeping reflux event.

Chapter 2, Problem 2ITD, The pH of human stomach acid ranges from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas a healthy esophagus has a pH of

What is the molar concentration of H+ and OH- ions: (a) during sleep after the reflux event; and (b) during the peak of the reflux event? Be sure to include the correct concentration units in your answer.

Source: Based on T. Demeester et al. 1976. Patterns of gastroesophageal reflux in health and disease. Annals of Surgery 184:459–469.

Expert Solution
Summary Introduction

To review:

The molar concentration of the following:

(i) H+ and OH- concentrations after reflux event.(ii) H+ and OH- concentrations at the peak of reflux.

Introduction:

The gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) disease is known to be a digestive disorder, which mainly affects the lower segment of esophageal sphincter, which is basically the ring of muscle found between the stomach and esophagus. The condition when the pH (potential of hydrogen) of esophagus drops below 7, the reflux is said to take place.

Explanation of Solution

The reflux is that condition when hydrochloric acid in stomach reaches esophagus and decreases its pH from 7.0 (normal condition) to acidic (below 7.0).

After reflux event was over, pH was found to be 5 and 6

As pH = -log(H+)

at pH = 5, concentration of H+would be 1×10-5.at pH = 6, concentration of H+would be 1×10-6.

As concentration of [OH-] = 1×1014[H+]At [H+] = 1×105 at pH = 5So, concentration of [OH-] = 1×1014[1×105

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