Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

When electrons are shared equally between atoms, they form:

a. a polar covalent bond.

b. a nonpolar covalent bond.

c. an ionic bond.

d. a hydrogen bond.

e. a van der Waals force.

Summary Introduction


The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are called valence electrons and the shell is called the valence shell. These electrons determine the chemical activity of an atom or element. The valence shell is different for different elements and depends on a number of electrons present in its atom. Atoms combine to form chemical bonds, in order to complete their valence shells.


Justification for the correct answer:

Option (b) is a non-polar covalent bond. Atoms with more than four valence electrons either share, or lose, their electrons for the same. If the sharing atoms are of the same element, they share the electrons equally and then the covalent bond is non-polar. Hence, option (b) is correct.

Justification for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) is a polar covalent bond. If the atoms are of different elements, then sharing is unequal because one of the atoms is more electronegative and it draws the shared pair closer to itself, and the covalent bond is polar. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (c) is an ionic bond...

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