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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909
Textbook Problem

During a normal exhalation, the

1. intra-alveolar pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure.

2. pleural pressure is less than the atmospheric pressure.

3. intra-alveolar pressure is in equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure.

4. pleural pressure progressiverly decreases.

A. 1 only

B. 4 only

C. 1 and 2 only

D. 3 and 4 only

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

Exhalation or expiration is a process by which air is breathed out from the lungs. Normal expiration occurs when the pulmonary pressure rises above the atmospheric pressure, and the volume of the pulmonary cavity decreases which expels the air out of the lungs. The relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles help in the process. The tidal volume is the volume of air exhaled by a healthy person in one breath, which is equal to about 500 milliliters.

Explanation

Justification/ Explanation for the correct answer:

Option (c) states that the intra-alveolar pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure, and the pleural pressure is less than the atmospheric pressure during normal exhalation process. The lung volume and the alveolar volume decrease during respiration, and thus, the pressure increases. The pressure gradient is formed as the atmospheric pressure is less than the intra-alveolar pressure. This gradient helps in the movement of gases from the alveoli to the atmosphere. Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

The explanation for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) states that during expiration, the intra-alveolar pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure. This does not alone happen in the expiration process. The pleural pressure is also less than the atmospheric pressure, and this forms a pressure gradient which expels the air outside the lungs...

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