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Define each of the following and give examples of each. a. isomer b. structural isomer c. stereoisomer d. coordination isomer e. linkage isomer f. geometrical isomer g. optical isomer Consider the cis and trans forms of the octahedral complex Cr(en) 2 Cl 2 . Are both of these isomers optically active? Explain. Another way to determine whether a substance is optically active is to look for a plane of symmetry in the molecule. If a substance has a plane of symmetry, then it will not exhibit optical activity (the mirror image will be superimposable). Show the plane of symmetry in the trans isomer and prove to yourself that the cis isomer does not have a plane of symmetry.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 20, Problem 5RQ
Textbook Problem
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Define each of the following and give examples of each.

a. isomer

b. structural isomer

c. stereoisomer

d. coordination isomer

e. linkage isomer

f. geometrical isomer

g. optical isomer

Consider the cis and trans forms of the octahedral complex Cr(en)2Cl2. Are both of these isomers optically active? Explain.

Another way to determine whether a substance is optically active is to look for a plane of symmetry in the molecule. If a substance has a plane of symmetry, then it will not exhibit optical activity (the mirror image will be superimposable). Show the plane of symmetry in the trans isomer and prove to yourself that the cis isomer does not have a plane of symmetry.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The concept of absence of optical inactivity for a complex on the basis of presence of plane of symmetry is given. The definition of the given terms, the optical behavior of [Cr(en)2Cl2] and the presence of plane of symmetry in trans isomer and its absence in cis isomer is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have a tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species and this leads to the formation of coordination compounds. There exists a large number of coordination compounds that have a large number of applications in the chemical industry as well as in daily life.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

(I)

(a)

To determine: The definition of isomer.

Isomer is basically a molecule that has same molecular formula just like another molecule, but has a different chemical structure.

Isomer is basically a molecule that has same molecular formula just like another molecule, but has a different chemical structure. The number of atoms that are present in an isomer is same, but they have different connectivity. Isomers differ in physical properties like melting point, color, crystal structure and many more. For example, the cis and trans form of [Pt(NH3)2]Cl2

(b)

To determine: The definition of structural isomer.

Structural isomers are basically those molecules that are of the same kind and contain the same number of atoms, but the connectivity of atoms is different.

Structural isomers are basically those molecules that are of the same kind and contain the same number of atoms, but the connectivity of atoms is different. As the atoms are connected in a different manner in structural isomers, they possess different chemical behaviour.

(c)

To determine: The definition of stereoisomer.

The isomers that consist of the same type of atoms with same type of bonds, but there is a difference in the orientation of these bonds in space.

The isomers that consist of the same type of atoms with the same type of bonds, but there is a difference in the orientation of these bonds in space. Stereoisomer talks about the three dimensional arrangement of atoms. It is further of two types, one is geometrical isomer and the other is optical isomer. For example,

Figure 1

(d)

To determine: The definition of coordination isomer.

Those isomers in which a complex ion has variation in the composition of ions are called coordination isomers.

Those isomers in which a complex ion has variation in the composition of ions are called coordination isomers. The ratio between the ligands and the metal is same, with just a difference in the attachment of the ligand to the metal. For example, [Cu(NH3)4]2+[ZnCl4]2 and [Zn(NH3)4]2+[CuCl4]2. Here in this example, the ratio of ligands and metal is same, but the ligands that are attached to the central metal atom is changed.

(e)

To determine: The definition of linkage isomer.

The isomers in which a ligand can coordinate with metal through more than one site are called linkage isomers. Ambidentate ligands are involved in the linkage isomerism. They can coordinate with the metal through more than one site. For example, [(NH3)5CoSCN]2+ and [(NH3)5CoNCS]2+

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Chapter 20 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 20 - You isolate a compound with the formula PtCl4 ...Ch. 20 - Both Ni(NH3)42+ and Ni(SCN)42 have four ligands....Ch. 20 - Which is more likely to be paramagnetic, Fe(CN)64...Ch. 20 - A metal ion in a high-spin octahedral complex has...Ch. 20 - What is the lanthanide contraction? 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Ru(NH3)5Cl2+...Ch. 20 - Name the following coordination compounds. a....Ch. 20 - Name the following coordination compounds. a....Ch. 20 - Give formulas for the following. a. potassium...Ch. 20 - Give formulas for the following complex ions. a....Ch. 20 - Draw geometrical isomers of each of the following...Ch. 20 - Draw structures of each of the following. a....Ch. 20 - The carbonate ion (CO32) can act as either a...Ch. 20 - Amino acids can act as ligands toward transition...Ch. 20 - How many bonds could each of the following...Ch. 20 - BAL is a chelating agent used in treating heavy...Ch. 20 - Draw all geometrical and linkage isomers of...Ch. 20 - Draw all geometrical and linkage isomers of square...Ch. 20 - Acetylacetone, abbreviated acacH, is a bidentate...Ch. 20 - Draw all geometrical isomers of Pt(CN)2Br2(H2O)2....Ch. 20 - Match the crystal field diagrams given below with...Ch. 20 - Match the crystal field diagrams given below with...Ch. 20 - Draw the d-orbital splitting diagrams for the...Ch. 20 - Draw the d-orbital splitting diagrams for the...Ch. 20 - The CrF64 ion is known to have four unpaired...Ch. 20 - The Co(NH3)63+ ion is diamagnetic, but Fe(H2O)62+...Ch. 20 - How many unpaired electrons are in the following...Ch. 20 - The complex ion Fe(CN)63 is paramagnetic with one...Ch. 20 - Rank the following complex ions in order of...Ch. 20 - The complex ion Cu(H2O)62+ has an absorption...Ch. 20 - The following test tubes each contain a different...Ch. 20 - Consider the complex ions Co(NH3)63+, Co(CN)63,...Ch. 20 - The wavelength of absorbed electromagnetic...Ch. 20 - The complex ion NiCL42 has two unpaired electrons,...Ch. 20 - How many unpaired electrons are present in the...Ch. 20 - The complex ion PdCl42is diamagnetic. 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In the absorption spectrum of the complex ion...Ch. 20 - There are three salts that contain complex ions of...

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