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One of the classic methods for the determination of the manganese content in steel involves converting all the manganese to the deeply colored permanganate ion and then measuring the absorption of light. The steel is first dissolved in nitric acid, producing the manganese(II) ion and nitrogen dioxide gas. This solution is then reacted with an acidic solution containing periodate ion; the products are the permanganate and iodate ions. Write balanced chemical equations for both of these steps.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 20, Problem 70E
Textbook Problem
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One of the classic methods for the determination of the manganese content in steel involves converting all the manganese to the deeply colored permanganate ion and then measuring the absorption of light. The steel is first dissolved in nitric acid, producing the manganese(II) ion and nitrogen dioxide gas. This solution is then reacted with an acidic solution containing periodate ion; the products are the permanganate and iodate ions. Write balanced chemical equations for both of these steps.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The balanced equation for the reaction of steel and nitric acid is to be written. The balanced equation is to be written for the reaction between obtained solutions and periodate ion.

Concept introduction: Steel contains manganese ion. The content of manganese in steel is determined by conversion of all manganese into deeply colored permanganate ion.

To determine: The balanced equation for the reaction of steel and nitric acid and for the reaction between obtained solutions and periodate ion.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

Reaction of manganese (Mn) with nitric acid (HNO3) yields manganese (II) ion (Mn2+) and nitrogen dioxide gas (NO2). The oxidation half reaction for the above reaction,

Mn(s)+HNO3(aq)Mn2+(aq)+NO2(g)

The change in the oxidation number of manganese is from 0 to +2.

All the atoms except oxygen and hydrogen in the oxidation half-reaction are already balanced. So, directly balance the oxygen and hydrogen atoms by adding water molecules to the right hand side,

Mn(s)+2HNO3(aq)Mn2+(aq)+2NO2(g)+H2O(l)

Reaction of manganese (II) with periodate ion (IO4) yields permagnet (MnO4) and iodate ion (IO3). ,

Mn2+(aq)+IO4(aq)+H2O(l)MnO4(aq)+IO3(aq)

In this reaction, manganese oxidizes to form permagnet. The oxidation half reaction is,

Mn2+(aq)MnO4(aq)

The change in the oxidation number of manganese is from +2 to +7.

All the atoms except oxygen and hydrogen in the reduction half-reaction are already balanced. So, directly balance the oxygen atoms by adding water molecules to the left hand side,

4H2O(l)+Mn2+(aq)MnO4(aq)

Balance the hydrogen atom by adding H+ to the right hand side,

4H2O(l)+Mn2+(aq)MnO4(aq)+8H+

Balance the charge by adding appropriate number of electrons to the right hand side,

4H2O(l)+Mn2+(aq)MnO4(aq)+8H++5e

The final oxidation half reaction is,

4H2O(l)+Mn2+(aq)MnO4(aq)+8H++5e (1)

In this reaction, periodate ion reduces to form iodate ion

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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