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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Metals generally react with hydrogen halides to give the metal halide and hydrogen. Determine whether this is true for silver by calculating ΔrG° for the reaction with each of the hydrogen halides.

Ag(s) + HX(g) → AgX(s) + ½ H2(g)

The required free energies of formation are:

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Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To determine the ΔrG° for the reaction of silver with HX where X is a halogen.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔrG. It can be calculated in a similar manner as entropy and enthalpy.  The expression for the free energy change is:

ΔrG°=nΔfG°(products)nΔfG°(reactants)

It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

ΔrG=ΔrHTΔrS

Here, ΔrH is the change in enthalpy and ΔrS is the change in entropy.

Explanation

The ΔrG for the reaction of silver with hydrogen halide is calculated below.

Given:

Refer to Appendix L for the values of standard free energies.

For X=F,

The given reaction is,

  Ag(s)+HF(g)AgF(s)+12H2(g)

The ΔfG° for AgF(s) is 193.8 kJ/mol.

The ΔfG° for HF(g) is 273.2 kJ/mol.

The ΔfG° for H2(g) is 0 kJ/mol.

The ΔfG° for Ag(s) is 0 kJ/mol.

The expression for free energy change is,

ΔrG°=nΔfG°(products)nΔfG°(reactants)=[[(1 mol AgF(s)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[AgF(s)]+(0.5 mol H2(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[H2(g)]][(1 mol Ag(s)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[Ag(s)]+(1 mol HF(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[HF(g)]] ] 

Substitute the values,

ΔrG°=[[(1 mol AgF(s)/mol-rxn)(193.8 kJ/mol)+(0.5 mol H2(g)/mol-rxn)(0 kJ/mol)][(1 mol Ag(s)/mol-rxn)(0 kJ/mol)+(1 mol HF(g)/mol-rxn)(273.2 kJ/mol)] ] =+79.4 kJ/mol-rxn

For X=Cl,

The given reaction is,

  Ag(s)+HCl(g)AgCl(s)+12H2(g)

The ΔfG° for AgCl(s) is 109.76 kJ/mol.

The ΔfG° for HCl(g) is 95.09 kJ/mol.

The ΔfG° for H2(g) is 0 kJ/mol.

The ΔfG° for Ag(s) is 0 kJ/mol.

The expression for free energy change is,

ΔrG°=nΔfG°(products)nΔfG°(reactants)=[[(1 mol AgCl(s)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[AgCl(s)]+(0.5 mol H2(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[H2(g)]][(1 mol Ag(s)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[Ag(s)]+(1 mol HCl(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfG°[HCl(g)]] ] 

Substitute the values,

ΔrG°=[[(1 mol AgCl(s)/mol-rxn)(109.76 kJ/mol)+(0.5 mol H2(g)/mol-rxn)(0 kJ/mol)][(1 mol Ag(s)/mol-rxn)(0 kJ/mol)+(1 mol HCl(g)/mol-rxn)(95.09 kJ/mol)] ] =14.67 kJ/mol-rxn

For X=Br,

The given reaction is,

  Ag(s)+HBr(g)AgBr(s)+12H2(g)

The ΔfG° for AgBr(s) is 96

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Chapter 21 Solutions

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Sect-21.11 P-2.4ACPSect-21.11 P-2.5ACPCh-21 P-1PSCh-21 P-2PSCh-21 P-3PSCh-21 P-4PSCh-21 P-5PSCh-21 P-6PSCh-21 P-7PSCh-21 P-8PSCh-21 P-9PSCh-21 P-10PSCh-21 P-11PSCh-21 P-12PSCh-21 P-13PSCh-21 P-14PSCh-21 P-15PSCh-21 P-16PSCh-21 P-17PSCh-21 P-18PSCh-21 P-19PSCh-21 P-20PSCh-21 P-21PSCh-21 P-22PSCh-21 P-23PSCh-21 P-24PSCh-21 P-25PSCh-21 P-26PSCh-21 P-27PSCh-21 P-28PSCh-21 P-29PSCh-21 P-30PSCh-21 P-31PSCh-21 P-32PSCh-21 P-33PSCh-21 P-34PSCh-21 P-35PSCh-21 P-36PSCh-21 P-37PSCh-21 P-38PSCh-21 P-39PSCh-21 P-40PSCh-21 P-41PSCh-21 P-42PSCh-21 P-43PSCh-21 P-44PSCh-21 P-45PSCh-21 P-46PSCh-21 P-47PSCh-21 P-48PSCh-21 P-49PSCh-21 P-50PSCh-21 P-51PSCh-21 P-52PSCh-21 P-53PSCh-21 P-54PSCh-21 P-55PSCh-21 P-56PSCh-21 P-57PSCh-21 P-58PSCh-21 P-59PSCh-21 P-60PSCh-21 P-61PSCh-21 P-62PSCh-21 P-63PSCh-21 P-64PSCh-21 P-65PSCh-21 P-66PSCh-21 P-67PSCh-21 P-68PSCh-21 P-69PSCh-21 P-70PSCh-21 P-71PSCh-21 P-72PSCh-21 P-73PSCh-21 P-74PSCh-21 P-75PSCh-21 P-76PSCh-21 P-77PSCh-21 P-78PSCh-21 P-79PSCh-21 P-80PSCh-21 P-81PSCh-21 P-82PSCh-21 P-83PSCh-21 P-84PSCh-21 P-85PSCh-21 P-86PSCh-21 P-87PSCh-21 P-88PSCh-21 P-89GQCh-21 P-90GQCh-21 P-91GQCh-21 P-92GQCh-21 P-93GQCh-21 P-94GQCh-21 P-95GQCh-21 P-96GQCh-21 P-97GQCh-21 P-98GQCh-21 P-99GQCh-21 P-100GQCh-21 P-101GQCh-21 P-102GQCh-21 P-103GQCh-21 P-105GQCh-21 P-106GQCh-21 P-107GQCh-21 P-108GQCh-21 P-110GQCh-21 P-111GQCh-21 P-112GQCh-21 P-113GQCh-21 P-114GQCh-21 P-115ILCh-21 P-116ILCh-21 P-117ILCh-21 P-118ILCh-21 P-119ILCh-21 P-120ILCh-21 P-121SCQCh-21 P-122SCQCh-21 P-123SCQCh-21 P-124SCQCh-21 P-125SCQCh-21 P-126SCQCh-21 P-127SCQCh-21 P-128SCQCh-21 P-129SCQCh-21 P-130SCQCh-21 P-131SCQ

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