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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425
BuyFind

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 21, Problem 1ALQ
Textbook Problem

Differentiate among primary, secondary, and tertiary structure in proteins.

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Interpret difference between primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of protein.

Concept Introduction:

Protein is a long chain of polypeptide in which number of amino acids are linked to each other to produce a structure known as protein.

Each amino acid consists of carboxyl end and amino group which are joined through peptide linkage to produce dipeptide, tripeptide and polypeptide according to number of amino acids linked to each other.

Answer to Problem 1ALQ

Primary structure of protein consists of long straight chain of amino acid but not the H bondsthus, they are less stable and can be denatured easily.

Secondary 20structure of protein consists of alpha helix and beta pleated sheet and it mostly consist of intramolecular H bonding.

Tertiary 30 structure of protein produced from further coiling of secondary 20 structure and consist of intermolecular H bonding for more stability. It requires more energy for denaturation.

Explanation of Solution

Primary structure of protein consists of long chain of amino acid linked to each other through peptide bond. Amino group of one amino acid linked to carboxyl group of 2nd amino acid and linear chain is created to produce 10 structure of protein.

In 10 structure, some region of protein organized to repeating patter to produce Secondary structure of protein. Secondary structure of protein consists of alpha helix and beta pleated structure.

The 20 structure get condenses to produce tertiary structure of protein. This tertiary 30 structure usually have single backbone of polypeptide and sidewise overlapping of strand of protein may occur due to intermolecular H bonding and 30 structure condenses more due to presence of intramolecular H bonding.

Conclusion

Thus, primary structure of protein consists of long straight chain of amino acid but not the H bonds thus, they are less stable and can be denatured easily.

Secondary 20 structure of protein consists of alpha helix and beta pleated sheet and it mostly consist of intramolecular H bonding.

Tertiary 30 structure of protein produced from further coiling of secondary 20 structure and consist of intermolecular H bonding for more stability. It requires more energy for denaturation.

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Chapter 21 Solutions

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation
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Ch. 21 - . Sketch the general structure of a triglyceride....Ch. 21 - . Describe the mechanism by which fatty acid salts...Ch. 21 - _________ is the study of the chemistry of living...Ch. 21 - What are trace elements, and why are such elements...Ch. 21 - What are proteins? Are proteins polymers? Explain....Ch. 21 - What general functions do fibrous and globular...Ch. 21 - Consider the 20 most common amino acids shown in...Ch. 21 - Consider the amino acids alanine, cysteine, and...Ch. 21 - Nonpolar side chains in a-amino acids tend to be...Ch. 21 - Given the structures of the amino acids in Fig....Ch. 21 - Given the structures of the amino acids alanine...Ch. 21 - . How many unique amino acid sequences are...Ch. 21 - . What is a peptide linkage? Choose two amino...Ch. 21 - . What does the primary structure of a protein...Ch. 21 - . In general terms, what does the secondary...Ch. 21 - . How is the secondary structure of a protein...Ch. 21 - . Describe the secondary structure of the protein...Ch. 21 - . Silk consists of a(n) _________ structure in...Ch. 21 - . In general terms, what does the tertiary...Ch. 21 - . An S—S bond between two cysteine amino acids on...Ch. 21 - . What is meant by denaturation of a protein? Give...Ch. 21 - . What protein is responsible for the transport of...Ch. 21 - . What name is given to proteins that catalyze...Ch. 21 - . What is the name of the protein found in all...Ch. 21 - . What are antibodies? How do they work?Ch. 21 - . How are proteins able to act as buffering agents...Ch. 21 - . How does the efficiency of an enzyme compare...Ch. 21 - . Describe enzyme catalysis as a series of steps,...Ch. 21 - . What name is given to the specific portion of...Ch. 21 - . Describe the lock-and-key model for enzymes. Why...Ch. 21 - . Sketch the straight-chain representations of the...Ch. 21 - . Many of the most important carbohydrates are...Ch. 21 - . Sketch the ring structures of glucose and...Ch. 21 - . What is a hexose sugar? Sketch the...Ch. 21 - . What is a disaccharide? What monosaccharide...Ch. 21 - . Starch and cellulose both are polymers of...Ch. 21 - . Sketch a representation of the disaccharide...Ch. 21 - . In addition to using numerical prefixes in the...Ch. 21 - . _________ carries the information needed for the...Ch. 21 - . RNA molecules, which are found in the cytoplasm...Ch. 21 - . DNA nucleotides contain the pentose _______...Ch. 21 - . Name the live nitrogen bases found in DNA and...Ch. 21 - . Describe the double-helical structure of DNA....Ch. 21 - . The text states that the key to DNA’s...Ch. 21 - . What is a gene?Ch. 21 - . Lipids are a group of substances defined in...Ch. 21 - . What are the four classes of lipids? Give an...Ch. 21 - . Sketch the general structure of a triglyceride....Ch. 21 - . Referring to Table 21.5, give an example of a...Ch. 21 - . Using the general formula for a triglyceride,...Ch. 21 - . Describe the mechanism by which a soap is able...Ch. 21 - . What is a micelle? How do the micelles formed by...Ch. 21 - . What is a steroid? What basic ring structure 15...Ch. 21 - . What types of hormones are synthesized in the...Ch. 21 - . Give the names of several steroid sex hormones,...Ch. 21 - . What are bile acids, and from what are they...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55-76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - For Exercises 55—76 choose one of the following...Ch. 21 - . The substance in the nucleus of the cell that...Ch. 21 - . RNA molecules have molar masses in the range of...Ch. 21 - . The pentose deoxyribose is found in DNA, whereas...Ch. 21 - . The basic linkage in DNA or RNA between the...Ch. 21 - . The bases on opposite strands of DNA are said to...Ch. 21 - . In a strand of normal DNA, the base ________ is...Ch. 21 - . A given segment of the DNA molecule, which...Ch. 21 - . During protein synthesis, _________ RNA...Ch. 21 - . The codes specified by ________ are responsible...Ch. 21 - . Write the amino acid sequences possible for a...Ch. 21 - . _________ are esters of the polyhydroxyalcohol...Ch. 21 - . Vegetable oils tend to contain ________ fatty...Ch. 21 - . The process of _________ involves treating a fat...Ch. 21 - . Fatty acid anions make good soaps because they...Ch. 21 - . The aggregations of fatty acid anions that form...Ch. 21 - . Cholesterol, adrenocorticoid hormones, sex...Ch. 21 - . The starting material in the body for the...Ch. 21 - . Referring to Fig. 21.25, what is a common...Ch. 21 - . Cholic acid and other bile acids act as ________...Ch. 21 - . Describe the secondary protein structure known...Ch. 21 - . How many possible primary structures exist for a...Ch. 21 - . List three structural uses of proteins in the...Ch. 21 - . What specific protein carries oxygen from the...Ch. 21 - . Describe the structure of the protein collagen....Ch. 21 - . What is meant by inhibition of an enzyme’? What...Ch. 21 - . What general name is given to sugars containing...Ch. 21 - . Although both starch and cellulose are polymers...Ch. 21 - . In the formation of a polynucleotide (a short...Ch. 21 - . Describe the structure of a wax. Where do waxes...Ch. 21 - . What is a phospholipid? How does the structure...

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