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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918

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BuyFindarrow_forward

General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918
Chapter 21, Problem 21.77EP
Textbook Problem
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By what mechanism do sulfa drugs kill bacteria?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The mechanism by which sulfa drugs kill bacteria to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The whole family of sulfanilamide derivatives is collectively known as sulfa drugs.  They were the first antibiotics in the field of medicine.  They kill bacteria or prevent their growth.

Explanation of Solution

Sulfa drugs kill bacteria through competitive inhibition.  The structure of sulfanilamide is similar to that of PABA (p-aminobenzoic acid).  Many bacteria require PABA to produce a coenzyme, folic acid.  Sulfanilamide acts as a competitive inhibitor to those enzymes which convert PABA into folic acid...

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Chapter 21 Solutions

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 21.4 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 21.4 - Which of the following enzyme properties is...Ch. 21.5 - The specificity of an enzyme that catalyzes the...Ch. 21.5 - Linkage-specific enzymes will act on a particular...Ch. 21.6 - The number of substrate molecules converted to...Ch. 21.6 - A plot of enzyme activity (y-axis) versus pH...Ch. 21.6 - A plot of enzyme activity (y-axis) versus...Ch. 21.7 - Extremozyme presence is not possible in which of...Ch. 21.7 - Which of the following pairings of extremozyme...Ch. 21.8 - Which of the following statements concerning a...Ch. 21.8 - Which of the following statements concerning an...Ch. 21.8 - Which of the following binds to an enzyme at a...Ch. 21.9 - Which of the following is an incorrect...Ch. 21.9 - Enzyme activity regulation that involves a...Ch. 21.9 - Which of the following statements applies to a...Ch. 21.10 - Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme by the...Ch. 21.10 - Inhibition of the enzyme transpeptidase is the...Ch. 21.11 - Measurement of blood levels for the enzymes LDH,...Ch. 21.11 - Use of the enzyme tissue plasminogen activator...Ch. 21.12 - The number of known vitamins is a. 10 b. 13 c. 15...Ch. 21.12 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 21.12 - Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?...Ch. 21.13 - Which of the following statements concerning...Ch. 21.13 - Which of the following statements about...Ch. 21.13 - In the recharging of a metal-containing enzyme by...Ch. 21.14 - Which of the following statements concerning the B...Ch. 21.14 - The major biochemical function for B vitamins...Ch. 21.14 - Which of the B vitamins has a name that draws...Ch. 21.14 - Which of the B vitamins has a name that draws...Ch. 21.14 - The coenzyme form for which of the B vitamins...Ch. 21.14 - Which of the B vitamins has three forms which...Ch. 21.15 - The compound beta-carotene is closely associated...Ch. 21.15 - Cholesterol is a precursor for synthesis of which...Ch. 21.15 - The term calciferol is closely associated with...Ch. 21.15 - For which of the following vitamins is blood...Ch. 21.15 - Which of the following vitamins does not have more...Ch. 21 - What is the general role of enzymes in the human...Ch. 21 - Why does the body need so many different enzymes?Ch. 21 - List two ways in which enzymes differ from...Ch. 21 - Occasionally the delicate nature of enzymes is...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following phrases...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following phrases...Ch. 21 - Explain why a metal ion can function as a cofactor...Ch. 21 - Explain why a small organic molecule can function...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Based on its name, indicate whether each of the...Ch. 21 - Based on its name, indicate whether each of the...Ch. 21 - Predict the function of each of the following...Ch. 21 - Predict the function of each of the following...Ch. 21 - What is the substrate for each of the enzymes...Ch. 21 - What is the substrate for each of the enzymes...Ch. 21 - Suggest a name for an enzyme that catalyzes each...Ch. 21 - Suggest a name for an enzyme that catalyzes each...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - To which of the six major classes of enzymes does...Ch. 21 - To which of the six major classes of enzymes does...Ch. 21 - Identify the enzyme needed in each of the...Ch. 21 - Identify the enzyme needed in each of the...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the statements in Problem...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the statements in Problem...Ch. 21 - What types of forces hold a substrate at an enzyme...Ch. 21 - The forces that hold a substrate at an enzyme...Ch. 21 - The following equation is a representation of an...Ch. 21 - The following equation is a representation of an...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Define the following terms dealing with enzyme...Ch. 21 - Define the following terms dealing with enzyme...Ch. 21 - Which enzyme in each of the following pairs would...Ch. 21 - Which enzyme in each of the following pairs would...Ch. 21 - What type of specificity (absolute, group,...Ch. 21 - What type of specificity (absolute, group,...Ch. 21 - The following graph shows the relationship between...Ch. 21 - Based on the graphical information in Problem...Ch. 21 - Based on the graphical information in Problem...Ch. 21 - Based on the graphical information in Problem...Ch. 21 - Does the activity of a typical nondigestive human...Ch. 21 - Does the activity of a typical nondigestive human...Ch. 21 - Draw a graph that shows the effect of increasing...Ch. 21 - Draw a graph that shows the effect of increasing...Ch. 21 - In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, all of the enzyme...Ch. 21 - What is an enzyme turnover number?Ch. 21 - Describe the effect that each of the following...Ch. 21 - Describe the effect that each of the following...Ch. 21 - What is an extremophile?Ch. 21 - What are two common environmental settings where...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - What type(s) of extremophiles are used in...Ch. 21 - What type(s) of extremophiles are used in oil well...Ch. 21 - In competitive inhibition, can both the inhibitor...Ch. 21 - Compare the sites where competitive and...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - What occurs during the covalent modification of an...Ch. 21 - What occurs during the covalent modification of an...Ch. 21 - Is the phosphorylated version of an enzyme the...Ch. 21 - Is the dephosphorylated version of an enzyme the...Ch. 21 - Explain the difference in meaning, if any, between...Ch. 21 - Explain the difference in meaning, if any, between...Ch. 21 - What is the relationship between the compounds...Ch. 21 - What is the relationship of angiotensin-converting...Ch. 21 - By what mechanism do sulfa drugs kill bacteria?Ch. 21 - By what mechanism do penicillins kill bacteria?Ch. 21 - What does the acronym TPA stand for, and how is...Ch. 21 - What does the acronym BUN stand for, and how is...Ch. 21 - What enzyme is denoted by each of the following...Ch. 21 - What enzyme is denoted by each of the following...Ch. 21 - What is the medical diagnostic value associated...Ch. 21 - What is the medical diagnostic value associated...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the vitamins in Problem...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the vitamins in Problem...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the vitamins in Problem...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the vitamins in Problem...Ch. 21 - What are the structural differences between the...Ch. 21 - What are the structural differences between the...Ch. 21 - What is the biochemical relationship between...Ch. 21 - What is the biochemical relationship between...Ch. 21 - Vitamin C is biosynthesized in a two-step process....Ch. 21 - Two enzymes, lactonase and an oxidase, are...Ch. 21 - What is the most characterized role of the B...Ch. 21 - Only eight of the nine water-soluble vitamins are...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following B vitamin...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following B vitamin...Ch. 21 - Which of the B vitamins has a structure that fits...Ch. 21 - Which of the B vitamins has a structure that fits...Ch. 21 - What is the difference structurally between the...Ch. 21 - What is the difference structurally between the...Ch. 21 - Name the B vitamin precursor for each of the...Ch. 21 - Name the B vitamin precursor for each of the...Ch. 21 - The coenzyme forms of B vitamins are involved in...Ch. 21 - The coenzyme form of B vitamins are involved in...Ch. 21 - Describe the structural differences among the...Ch. 21 - What is the relationship between the plant pigment...Ch. 21 - What is cell differentiation, and how does vitamin...Ch. 21 - List four major functions of vitamin A in the...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following vitamin A...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following vitamin A...Ch. 21 - How do vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 differ in...Ch. 21 - In terms of their source, how do vitamin D2 and...Ch. 21 - What is the principal function of vitamin D in the...Ch. 21 - Why is vitamin D often called the sunshine...Ch. 21 - For each of the following pairs of molecules...Ch. 21 - For each of the following pairs of molecules...Ch. 21 - Which structural form of vitamin E exhibits the...Ch. 21 - How do the various forms of vitamin E differ in...Ch. 21 - What is the principal function of vitamin E in the...Ch. 21 - Why is vitamin E often given to premature infants...Ch. 21 - How do vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 differ in...Ch. 21 - In terms of their source, how do vitamin K1 and...Ch. 21 - How are menaquinones, phylloquinones, and vitamin...Ch. 21 - What is the principal function of vitamin K in the...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 21 - Which vitamin or vitamins has (have) each of the...Ch. 21 - Which vitamin or vitamins has (have) each of the...Ch. 21 - Which of the 13 vitamins has a structure that fits...Ch. 21 - Which of the 13 vitamins has a structure that fits...

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