   Chapter 21, Problem 42PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The element below aluminum in Group 3A is gallium, and there are numerous similarities in the chemistry of these two elements. For example, the hydroxides of both elements are amphoteric. A consequence of this is that both gallium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide (a) are insoluble in water (b) dissolve only in acid (c) dissolve only in base (d) dissolve in acid and in base

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To predict the consequence of amphoteric nature of gallium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar. These elements can exist in a similar oxidation state due to the same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compound with the same formula.

If two elements belong to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of the same group have same oxidation number and forms an analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

Aluminium and gallium both belong to group 3A of the periodic table. The highest oxidation is +3. The formula for hydroxides of both these elements is same. The formula for aluminium hydroxide is Al(OH)3 and the formula for gallium hydroxide is Ga(OH)3 Both the hydroxides are amphoteric in nature.

Explanation

Reason for the correct option

Option d (dissolve in acid and in base) is the correct option.

Amphoteric hydroxides are the compounds that are able to react with both acid as well as the base. The formula for aluminium hydroxide is Al(OH)3 and the formula for gallium hydroxide is Ga(OH)3. Both the hydroxides are amphoteric in nature. Thus, both aluminium hydroxide and gallium hydroxide dissolve in acid and in the base.

The chemical equation for the reaction of aluminium hydroxide with an acid  HCl is:

Al(OH)3+3HClAlCl3+3H2O

The chemical equation for the reaction of aluminium hydroxide with a base  NaOH is:

Al(OH)3+NaOHNa[Al(OH)4]

The chemical equation for the reaction of gallium hydroxide with an acid  HCl is:

Ga(OH)3+3HClGaCl3+3H2O

The chemical equation for the reaction of gallium hydroxide

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