   Chapter 21, Problem 49PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Aluminum dissolves readily in hot aqueous NaOH to give the aluminate ion, [Al(OH)4]−, and H2. Write a balanced equation for this reaction. If you begin with 13.2 g of Al, what volume (in liters) of H2 gas is produced when the gas is measured at 22.5 °C and a pressure of 735 mm Hg?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of aluminium and sodium hydroxide and predict the volume of H2 gas produced.

Concept introduction:

Aluminium belongs to group 3A of the periodic table. It react with a base like sodium hydroxide to produce sodium aluminate and hydrogen gas. There is evolution of heat and the reaction is highly exothermic. Hydrogen gas is released rapidly.

Ideal gas equation is,

PV=nRT

Where P, V, T, n, and R are the pressure, volume, temperature and amount of substance respectively.

Explanation

The volume of H2 gas produced from 13.2 g of Aluminium is calculated below.

Given:

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction of aluminium and sodium hydroxide is,

2Al(s)+2OH(aq)+6H2O(l)2Al(OH)4(aq)+3H2(g)

The molar mass of aluminium is 27 g. The mass of two moles of Aluminium is 54 g.

Two moles of aluminium is forming three moles of hydrogen.

Volume of gas produced at given temperature of 295.5 K and pressure of 735 mmHg can be calculated as follows,

Vmolar=(295

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