   Chapter 21, Problem 55E

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

# How many unpaired electrons are in the following complex ions?a. Ru(NH3)62+ (low-spin case)b. Ni(H2O)62+c. V(en)33+

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of unpaired electrons in the given complex ions is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: Weak field ligand that has small crystal field splitting energy gives high spin due to the presence of maximum unpaired electrons in lower energy t2g orbitals and higher energy orbitals.

Strong field ligand that has large crystal field splitting energy gives low spin due to the presence of maximum paired electrons in lower energy t2g orbitals.

To determine: The number of unpaired electrons in Ru(NH3)62+ (low spin).

Explanation

Explanation

The oxidation state of Ruthenium in Ru(NH3)62+ is +2 .

In the complex ion Ru(NH3)62+ , NH3 is a strong field ligand and its oxidation state is zero.

It is assumed that the oxidation state of metal ion Ruthenium (Ru) is x .

The given complex compound contains six ammonia molecules. Since, the overall charge on the complex ion is +2 . Therefore,

6(0)+x=+2x=+2

Therefore, the oxidation state of Ruthenium is +2 .

Complex ion Ru(NH3)62+ does not contain any unpaired electron.

The atomic number of Ruthenium is 44 and its electronic configuration is,

[Kr]4d75s1

It loses two electrons to acquire two positive charge and becomes Ru2+

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of unpaired electrons in the given complex ions is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: Weak field ligand that has small crystal field splitting energy gives high spin due to the presence of maximum unpaired electrons in lower energy t2g orbitals and higher energy orbitals.

Strong field ligand that has large crystal field splitting energy gives low spin due to the presence of maximum paired electrons in lower energy t2g orbitals.

To determine: The number of unpaired electrons in Ni(H2O)62+ .

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of unpaired electrons in the given complex ions is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: Weak field ligand that has small crystal field splitting energy gives high spin due to the presence of maximum unpaired electrons in lower energy t2g orbitals and higher energy orbitals.

Strong field ligand that has large crystal field splitting energy gives low spin due to the presence of maximum paired electrons in lower energy t2g orbitals.

To determine: The number of unpaired electrons in V(en)33+ .

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