   Chapter 21, Problem 70PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Which statement about oxygen is not true?(a) Liquid oxygen is aft farted to a magnet(b) The allotropes of oxygen are O2 and O3.(c) Oxygen is the most abundant element in Earth’s crust.(d) All electrons in O2 are paired.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The statement about the oxygen atom is not true is to be stated.

Concept introduction:

The oxygen atom belongs to the group 16 of the periodic table. The oxygen atom shows non-metallic character. The oxygen atom has six electrons in the valence shell and hence its outer electronic configuration is 2s22p4.

Orbital diagram represents each orbital with a box, with orbital’s in the same subshell in connected boxes, electrons are shown as arrows in the boxes, pointing up or down to indicate their spins.

Hund’s rule states that every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Explanation

Reason for the correct option:

Each oxygen atom has six valence shell electrons. Thus the O2 molecule contains total of 16 electrons. These electrons are arranged in molecular orbital diagram as follows:

The antibonding π*2py and π*2pz orbitals are singly occupied in accordance with hund’s rule which states that every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin. Therefore, there are two unpaired electrons in O2 molecule. Hence, option (d) is a correct option.

Reason for the incorrect options:

Paramagnetic substances attracted attracted towards induced magnetic field. Paramagnetism is associated with unpaired electrons, as in oxygen molecule there are two unpaired electrons with parallel spins

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