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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Bromine is obtained from brine wells. The process involves treating water containing bromide ion with Cl2 and extracting the Br2 from the solution using an organic solvent. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of Cl2 and Br. What are the oxidizing and reducing agents in this reaction? Using the table of standard reduction potentials (Appendix M), verify that this is a product-favored reaction at equilibrium.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: A balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Cl2 and Br ion is to be stated. Which one is oxidizing agent and which one is reducing agent is to be stated. Is this a product-favored reaction at equilibrium is to be stated.

Concept introduction:

An oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously in redox reactions. The half reaction in which loss of electrons occur is called oxidation reaction. Similarly, the half reaction in which gain of electrons occur is called reduction reaction.

An oxidizing agent gains electrons and is reduced in a chemical reaction whereas a reducing agent loses electrons and is oxidized in a chemical reaction.

The anode is defined as the electrode where oxidation occurs. The cathode is the electrode where reduction take place.

The standard cell potential expression is written as follows,

Ecell=Ecathode+Eanode (1)

A positive value of ECell indicates that the reaction proceeds spontaneously in the forward direction whereas, a negative value of Ecell indicates that the reaction proceeds spontaneously in backward direction.

Explanation

Bromine is obtained from sea water and brine lakes. Brine lakes contain 20005000ppm of Br. First sulfuric acid is added to adjust the pH to about 3.5. Then Cl2 gas is passed through the solution to oxidize the Br to Br2. This is an example of displacement of one element by another higher in the electrochemical series. The balance chemical equation for the reaction of Cl2 and Br ion is written as follows,

    Cl2(g)+2Br(aq)2Cl(aq)+Br2(l)

An oxidizing agent gains electrons and is reduced in a chemical reaction whereas a reducing agent loses electrons and is oxidized in a chemical reaction. In the above reaction Cl2 gains one electron and thus reduced in a chemical reaction. Hence, Cl2 is an oxidizing agent whereas Br loose one electron and is oxidized in a chemical reaction. Hence, Br is a reducing agent.

In any electrochemical reaction, electrons goes from one substance to another substance driven by the oxidation-reduction reaction. Electrochemical cells have two conducting electrodes, called the anode and cathode. The anode is defined as the electrode where oxidation occurs. The cathode is the electrode where reduction take place. Standard electrode potential (Ecell) can be calculated for both oxidation and reduction reactions. A positive value of ECell indicates that the reaction proceeds spontaneously in the forward direction whereas, a negative value of Ecell indicates that the reaction proceeds spontaneously in backward direction

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Chapter 21 Solutions

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Sect-21.11 P-2.4ACPSect-21.11 P-2.5ACPCh-21 P-1PSCh-21 P-2PSCh-21 P-3PSCh-21 P-4PSCh-21 P-5PSCh-21 P-6PSCh-21 P-7PSCh-21 P-8PSCh-21 P-9PSCh-21 P-10PSCh-21 P-11PSCh-21 P-12PSCh-21 P-13PSCh-21 P-14PSCh-21 P-15PSCh-21 P-16PSCh-21 P-17PSCh-21 P-18PSCh-21 P-19PSCh-21 P-20PSCh-21 P-21PSCh-21 P-22PSCh-21 P-23PSCh-21 P-24PSCh-21 P-25PSCh-21 P-26PSCh-21 P-27PSCh-21 P-28PSCh-21 P-29PSCh-21 P-30PSCh-21 P-31PSCh-21 P-32PSCh-21 P-33PSCh-21 P-34PSCh-21 P-35PSCh-21 P-36PSCh-21 P-37PSCh-21 P-38PSCh-21 P-39PSCh-21 P-40PSCh-21 P-41PSCh-21 P-42PSCh-21 P-43PSCh-21 P-44PSCh-21 P-45PSCh-21 P-46PSCh-21 P-47PSCh-21 P-48PSCh-21 P-49PSCh-21 P-50PSCh-21 P-51PSCh-21 P-52PSCh-21 P-53PSCh-21 P-54PSCh-21 P-55PSCh-21 P-56PSCh-21 P-57PSCh-21 P-58PSCh-21 P-59PSCh-21 P-60PSCh-21 P-61PSCh-21 P-62PSCh-21 P-63PSCh-21 P-64PSCh-21 P-65PSCh-21 P-66PSCh-21 P-67PSCh-21 P-68PSCh-21 P-69PSCh-21 P-70PSCh-21 P-71PSCh-21 P-72PSCh-21 P-73PSCh-21 P-74PSCh-21 P-75PSCh-21 P-76PSCh-21 P-77PSCh-21 P-78PSCh-21 P-79PSCh-21 P-80PSCh-21 P-81PSCh-21 P-82PSCh-21 P-83PSCh-21 P-84PSCh-21 P-85PSCh-21 P-86PSCh-21 P-87PSCh-21 P-88PSCh-21 P-89GQCh-21 P-90GQCh-21 P-91GQCh-21 P-92GQCh-21 P-93GQCh-21 P-94GQCh-21 P-95GQCh-21 P-96GQCh-21 P-97GQCh-21 P-98GQCh-21 P-99GQCh-21 P-100GQCh-21 P-101GQCh-21 P-102GQCh-21 P-103GQCh-21 P-105GQCh-21 P-106GQCh-21 P-107GQCh-21 P-108GQCh-21 P-110GQCh-21 P-111GQCh-21 P-112GQCh-21 P-113GQCh-21 P-114GQCh-21 P-115ILCh-21 P-116ILCh-21 P-117ILCh-21 P-118ILCh-21 P-119ILCh-21 P-120ILCh-21 P-121SCQCh-21 P-122SCQCh-21 P-123SCQCh-21 P-124SCQCh-21 P-125SCQCh-21 P-126SCQCh-21 P-127SCQCh-21 P-128SCQCh-21 P-129SCQCh-21 P-130SCQCh-21 P-131SCQ

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