   Chapter 21, Problem 8RQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

# Why do tetrahedral complex ions have a different crystal field diagram than octahedral complex ions? What is the tetrahedral crystal field diagram? Why are virtually all tetrahedral complex ions “high spin”?Explain the crystal field diagram for square planar complex ions and for linear complex ions.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reason for the for the tetrahedral complex ion having different crystal field diagram then octahedral complex ion; tetrahedral crystal field splitting diagram; the reason for tetrahedral complex ions being high spin; and the explanation for the crystal field diagram of square planar complex ion and linear complex ions is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The ratio of crystal field splitting energy of tetrahedral complex and octahedral complex is 49 .

The crystal field diagram of square planar complex is obtained by the removal of the two point charges along the zaxis .

The crystal field diagram of linear complex is obtained by the removal of the two point charges along the zaxis and two along dxy .

To determine: The reason for the for the tetrahedral complex ion having different crystal field diagram then octahedral complex ion; tetrahedral crystal field splitting diagram; the reason for tetrahedral complex ions being high spin; and the explanation for the crystal field diagram of square planar complex ion and linear complex ions.

Explanation

Explanation

The ratio of crystal field splitting energy of tetrahedral complex and octahedral complex is 49 .

The pattern of the atomic orbital splitting of tetrahedral complex is opposite to that of octahedral complex. The energy of dx2y2 and dz2 orbitals are less than that of dxy , dyz and dxz . While that in octahedral complex is opposite and therefore, the tetrahedral complex ion has different crystal field diagram then octahedral complex ion

The crystal field diagram of tetrahedral complex is,

Figure 1

Since, the ratio of crystal field splitting energy of tetrahedral complex and octahedral complex is 49 , the splitting energy of tetrahedral complex is smaller than pairing energy

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