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Distinguish between substitution and addition reactions. Give an example of each type of reaction. Alkanes and aromatics are fairly stable compounds. To make them react, a special catalyst must be present. What catalyst must be present when reacting Cl 2 with an alkane or with benzene? Adding Cl 2 to an alkene or alkyne does not require a special catalyst. Why are alkenes and alkynes more reactive than alkanes and aromatic compounds? All organic compounds can be combusted. What is the other reactant in a combustion reaction, and what are the products, assuming the organic compound contains only C, H, and perhaps O? The following are some other organic reactions covered in Section 21-4. Give an example to illustrate each type of reaction. a. Adding H 2 O to an alkene (in the presence of H + ) yields an alcohol. b. Primary alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes, which can be further oxidized to carboxylic acids. c. Secondary alcohols are oxidized to ketones. d. Reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid (in the presence of H + ) produces an ester.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 21, Problem 8RQ
Textbook Problem
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Distinguish between substitution and addition reactions. Give an example of each type of reaction. Alkanes and aromatics are fairly stable compounds. To make them react, a special catalyst must be present. What catalyst must be present when reacting Cl2 with an alkane or with benzene? Adding Cl2 to an alkene or alkyne does not require a special catalyst. Why are alkenes and alkynes more reactive than alkanes and aromatic compounds? All organic compounds can be combusted. What is the other reactant in a combustion reaction, and what are the products, assuming the organic compound contains only C, H, and perhaps O?

The following are some other organic reactions covered in Section 21-4. Give an example to illustrate each type of reaction.

a. Adding H2O to an alkene (in the presence of H+) yields an alcohol.

b. Primary alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes, which can be further oxidized to carboxylic acids.

c. Secondary alcohols are oxidized to ketones.

d. Reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid (in the presence of H+) produces an ester.

(I)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The substitution and addition reactions are distinguished.

When a particular atom or functional group in a compound is replaced by another group, then the reaction is known as substitution reaction.

Its example is when chloroethane reacts with a base, the hydroxide ion replaces chlorine as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

When two molecules combine together to form a larger compound, then the reaction is known as addition reaction.

When ethene reacts with bromine,1,2-dibromoethane forms as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Presence of lewis acid or sunlight is necessary for reaction between Cl2 and an alkane or benzene.

Alkanes and aromatic compounds are fairly stable. A special catalyst is required to make them react. A lewis acid or sunlight must be present when reacting Cl2 with an alkane or with benzene

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example that illustrate the formation alcohol by addition of water to an alkene.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example that illustrates the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes and which can be further oxidized to carboxylic acid.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example that illustrates the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example illustrating the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid.

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Chapter 21 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 21 - What are carbohydrates, and what are the monomers...Ch. 21 - Describe the structural differences between DNA...Ch. 21 - A confused student was doing an isomer problem and...Ch. 21 - For the following formulas, what types of...Ch. 21 - What is wrong with the following names? Give the...Ch. 21 - The following organic compounds cannot exist. Why?...Ch. 21 - If you had a group of hydrocarbons, what...Ch. 21 - Which of the functional groups in Table 21-4 can...Ch. 21 - A polypeptide is also called a polyamide. Nylon is...Ch. 21 - Give an example reaction that would yield the...Ch. 21 - Give an example reaction that would yield the...Ch. 21 - What is polystyrene? 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CH2 = CH ...Ch. 21 - Name each of the following alkenes or alkynes. a....Ch. 21 - Give the structure for each of the following. a....Ch. 21 - Give the structure for each of the following. a....Ch. 21 - Give the structure of each of the following...Ch. 21 - Cumene is the starting material for the industrial...Ch. 21 - Name each of the following. a. b. CH3CH2CH2CCl3 c....Ch. 21 - Name each of the following compounds. a. b. c. d....Ch. 21 - There is only one compound that is named...Ch. 21 - Consider the following four structures. a. Which...Ch. 21 - Which of the compounds in Exercises 25 and 27...Ch. 21 - Which of the compounds in Exercises 26 and 28...Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural isomers of C5H10. Ignore...Ch. 21 - Which of the structural isomers in Exercise 37...Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural and geometrical (cistrans)...Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural and geometrical (cistrans)...Ch. 21 - Draw all structural and geometrical (cistrans)...Ch. 21 - Cistrans isomerism is also possible in molecules...Ch. 21 - Draw the following. a. cis-2-hexene b....Ch. 21 - Name the following compounds. a. b. c.Ch. 21 - If one hydrogen in a hydrocarbon is replaced by a...Ch. 21 - There are three isomers of dichlorobenzene, one of...Ch. 21 - Identify each of the following compounds as a...Ch. 21 - Identify the functional groups present in the...Ch. 21 - Mimosine is a natural product found in large...Ch. 21 - Minoxidil (C9H15N5O) is a compound produced by...Ch. 21 - For each of the following alcohols, give the...Ch. 21 - Draw structural formulas for each of the following...Ch. 21 - Name all the alcohols that have the formula...Ch. 21 - Name all the aldehydes and ketones that have the...Ch. 21 - Name the following compounds. a. b. c.Ch. 21 - Draw the structural formula for each of the...Ch. 21 - Name the following compounds. a. b. c. HCOOHCh. 21 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 21 - Which of the following statements is(are) false?...Ch. 21 - Draw the isomer(s) specified. There may be more...Ch. 21 - Complete the following reactions. a. b. c. d.Ch. 21 - Reagents such as HCl, HBr, and HOH (H2O) can add...Ch. 21 - When toluene (C6H5CH3) reacts with chlorine gas in...Ch. 21 - Why is it preferable to produce chloroethane by...Ch. 21 - Using appropriate reactants, alcohols can be...Ch. 21 - Oxidation of an aldehyde yields a carboxylic acid:...Ch. 21 - How would you synthesize each of the following? a....Ch. 21 - What tests could you perform to distinguish...Ch. 21 - How would you synthesize the following esters? a....Ch. 21 - Complete the following reactions. a. CH3CO2H +...Ch. 21 - Kel-F is a polymer with the structure What is the...Ch. 21 - What monomer(s) must be used to produce the...Ch. 21 - Super glue contains methyl cyanoacrylate, which...Ch. 21 - Isoprene is the repeating unit in natural rubber....Ch. 21 - Kevlar, used in bulletproof vests, is made by the...Ch. 21 - The polyester formed from lactic acid, is used for...Ch. 21 - Polyimides are polymers that are tough and stable...Ch. 21 - The Amoco Chemical Company has successfully raced...Ch. 21 - Polystyrene can be made more rigid by...Ch. 21 - Polyesters containing double bonds are often...Ch. 21 - Which of the following polymers would be stronger...Ch. 21 - Poly(lauryl methacrylate) is used as an additive...Ch. 21 - Which of the amino acids in Fig. 21-18 contain the...Ch. 21 - When pure crystalline amino acids are heated,...Ch. 21 - Aspartame, the artificial sweetener marketed under...Ch. 21 - Glutathione, a tripeptide found in virtually all...Ch. 21 - Draw the structures of the two dipeptides that can...Ch. 21 - Draw the structures of the tripeptides glyalaser...Ch. 21 - Write the sequence of all possible tetrapeptides...Ch. 21 - How many different pentapeptides can be formed...Ch. 21 - Give an example of amino acids that could give...Ch. 21 - What types of interactions can occur between the...Ch. 21 - Oxygen is carried from the lungs to tissues by the...Ch. 21 - Over 100 different kinds of mutant hemoglobin...Ch. 21 - Draw cyclic structures for D-ribose and D-mannose.Ch. 21 - Indicate the chiral carbon atoms found in the...Ch. 21 - In addition to using numerical prefixes in the...Ch. 21 - Glucose can occur in three forms: two cyclic forms...Ch. 21 - What are the structural differences between - and...Ch. 21 - Cows can digest cellulose, but humans cant. 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