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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Identify a compound or ion of a second-period element that has a formula and Lewis structure analogous to each of the following:

  1. (a) PH4+
  2. (b) S22−
  3. (c) P2H4
  4. (d) PF3

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula PH4+  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

Explanation

Phosphorous belongs to the group 5A of the periodic table. The second period element of the group is Nitrogen. Both phosphorous and nitrogen have three valence electrons in their outermost shell.

The electronic configuration of Phosphorous is: 1s22s22p63s23p3

The electronic configuration of Nitr

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula S22  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula P2H4  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula PF3  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

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Chapter 21 Solutions

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Sect-21.11 P-2.4ACPSect-21.11 P-2.5ACPCh-21 P-1PSCh-21 P-2PSCh-21 P-3PSCh-21 P-4PSCh-21 P-5PSCh-21 P-6PSCh-21 P-7PSCh-21 P-8PSCh-21 P-9PSCh-21 P-10PSCh-21 P-11PSCh-21 P-12PSCh-21 P-13PSCh-21 P-14PSCh-21 P-15PSCh-21 P-16PSCh-21 P-17PSCh-21 P-18PSCh-21 P-19PSCh-21 P-20PSCh-21 P-21PSCh-21 P-22PSCh-21 P-23PSCh-21 P-24PSCh-21 P-25PSCh-21 P-26PSCh-21 P-27PSCh-21 P-28PSCh-21 P-29PSCh-21 P-30PSCh-21 P-31PSCh-21 P-32PSCh-21 P-33PSCh-21 P-34PSCh-21 P-35PSCh-21 P-36PSCh-21 P-37PSCh-21 P-38PSCh-21 P-39PSCh-21 P-40PSCh-21 P-41PSCh-21 P-42PSCh-21 P-43PSCh-21 P-44PSCh-21 P-45PSCh-21 P-46PSCh-21 P-47PSCh-21 P-48PSCh-21 P-49PSCh-21 P-50PSCh-21 P-51PSCh-21 P-52PSCh-21 P-53PSCh-21 P-54PSCh-21 P-55PSCh-21 P-56PSCh-21 P-57PSCh-21 P-58PSCh-21 P-59PSCh-21 P-60PSCh-21 P-61PSCh-21 P-62PSCh-21 P-63PSCh-21 P-64PSCh-21 P-65PSCh-21 P-66PSCh-21 P-67PSCh-21 P-68PSCh-21 P-69PSCh-21 P-70PSCh-21 P-71PSCh-21 P-72PSCh-21 P-73PSCh-21 P-74PSCh-21 P-75PSCh-21 P-76PSCh-21 P-77PSCh-21 P-78PSCh-21 P-79PSCh-21 P-80PSCh-21 P-81PSCh-21 P-82PSCh-21 P-83PSCh-21 P-84PSCh-21 P-85PSCh-21 P-86PSCh-21 P-87PSCh-21 P-88PSCh-21 P-89GQCh-21 P-90GQCh-21 P-91GQCh-21 P-92GQCh-21 P-93GQCh-21 P-94GQCh-21 P-95GQCh-21 P-96GQCh-21 P-97GQCh-21 P-98GQCh-21 P-99GQCh-21 P-100GQCh-21 P-101GQCh-21 P-102GQCh-21 P-103GQCh-21 P-105GQCh-21 P-106GQCh-21 P-107GQCh-21 P-108GQCh-21 P-110GQCh-21 P-111GQCh-21 P-112GQCh-21 P-113GQCh-21 P-114GQCh-21 P-115ILCh-21 P-116ILCh-21 P-117ILCh-21 P-118ILCh-21 P-119ILCh-21 P-120ILCh-21 P-121SCQCh-21 P-122SCQCh-21 P-123SCQCh-21 P-124SCQCh-21 P-125SCQCh-21 P-126SCQCh-21 P-127SCQCh-21 P-128SCQCh-21 P-129SCQCh-21 P-130SCQCh-21 P-131SCQ

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