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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The lanthanide contraction is given as an explanation for the fact that the 6th period transition metals have

(a) lower densities than the 5th period transition elements.

(b) atomic radii similar to the 5th period transition elements.

(c) lower melting points than the 5th period transition elements.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reason for the lanthanide contraction of the sixth period transition metals has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

Lanthanoid Contraction or lanthanide contraction:

When increasing atomic number from lanthanum to lutetium the decrease in the size of the atoms and ions of the rare earth elements. The number of valence electron is increase in 4f orbitals from lanthanum to lutetium, the nuclear charge is more positive by one unit.

The 4f electrons very incorrectly shield each other from the increased positive charge of the nucleus, so that the effective nuclear charge attracting each electron steadily increases through the lanthanoid elements, resulting in successive reductions of the atomic and ionic radii.

The lanthanum ion (La3+) to lutetium ion (Lu3+) there is a reductions of the atomic and ionic radii which cause there is contraction in the size, this called as lanthanide contraction.

Explanation

Reason for the correct option:

The atomic radii similar to the 5th period transition elements. Because of lanthanide contraction, the fifth group elements (yttrium to scandium) of atomic radii are similar with the six period elements (lanthanides) of atomic radii.

In sixth period elements, lanthanum ion (La3+) to lutet

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