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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Summarize the nomenclature rules for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds. Correct the following false statements regarding nomenclature of hydrocarbons.

a. The root name for a hydrocarbon is based on the shortest continuous chain of carbon atoms.

b. The suffix used to name all hydrocarbons is -ane.

c. Substituent groups are numbered so as to give the largest numbers possible.

d. No number is required to indicate the positions of double or triple bonds in alkenes and alkynes.

e. Substituent groups get the lowest number possible in alkenes and alkynes.

f. The ortho- term in aromatic hydrocarbons indicates the presence of two substituent groups bonded to carbon- 1 and carbon-3 in benzene.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Nomenclature rules for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic compounds are to be summarized. The given wrong statements are to be corrected.

Concept introduction: Hydrocarbons are the chemical compounds having carbon and hydrogen atoms. Aromatic hydrocarbons have sigma bonds and pi electrons delocalized between carbon atoms forming rings.

To determine: The nomenclature rules for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic compounds and to correct the given false statements.

Explanation

Explanation

The nomenclature of alkanes is done as described below.

  1. 1. Count the longest continuous chain of carbons.
  1. 2. Number the carbons in the chain starting with the end that is closest to the branch present in the chain.
  1. 3. Count the carbons present in each branch.
  1. 4. Use multiple numbers separated by commas, if multiple groups with the same number of carbons are present in the branches of a parent chain.
  1. 5. Place the names of the substituent groups in front of the name of the parent chain in alphabetical order.
  1. 6. Suffix “ane” is used for alkanes.

The nomenclature of alkenes is done as described below.

The nomenclature for alkenes is same as for alkanes with a few small differences that are,

  1. 1. The main chain length of carbon atoms must contain both the carbons of double bond. The double bond should get the least number.
  1. 2. Before the root name, the number of carbon having a double bond (the smaller number) is to specified.
  1. 3. If more than one double bond is present, prefixes like di, tri, tetra, etc. are used before the suffix “ene”.

The nomenclature of alkynes is done as described below.

The nomenclature for alkynes is done as,

  1. 1. Find the longest carbon chain that should include carbon carbon triple bond. The numbering should start from the end that is closest to the alkyne group and assign lowest number to it.
  1. 2. Label each of the substituent in alphabetical order and use prefixes di, tri, etc in case of more than one substituent...

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Ch-22 P-11RQCh-22 P-12RQCh-22 P-1QCh-22 P-2QCh-22 P-3QCh-22 P-4QCh-22 P-5QCh-22 P-6QCh-22 P-7QCh-22 P-8QCh-22 P-9QCh-22 P-10QCh-22 P-11QCh-22 P-12QCh-22 P-13ECh-22 P-14ECh-22 P-15ECh-22 P-16ECh-22 P-17ECh-22 P-18ECh-22 P-19ECh-22 P-20ECh-22 P-21ECh-22 P-22ECh-22 P-23ECh-22 P-24ECh-22 P-25ECh-22 P-26ECh-22 P-27ECh-22 P-28ECh-22 P-29ECh-22 P-30ECh-22 P-31ECh-22 P-32ECh-22 P-33ECh-22 P-34ECh-22 P-35ECh-22 P-36ECh-22 P-37ECh-22 P-38ECh-22 P-39ECh-22 P-40ECh-22 P-41ECh-22 P-42ECh-22 P-43ECh-22 P-44ECh-22 P-45ECh-22 P-46ECh-22 P-47ECh-22 P-48ECh-22 P-49ECh-22 P-50ECh-22 P-51ECh-22 P-52ECh-22 P-53ECh-22 P-54ECh-22 P-55ECh-22 P-56ECh-22 P-57ECh-22 P-58ECh-22 P-59ECh-22 P-60ECh-22 P-61ECh-22 P-62ECh-22 P-63ECh-22 P-64ECh-22 P-65ECh-22 P-66ECh-22 P-67ECh-22 P-68ECh-22 P-69ECh-22 P-70ECh-22 P-71ECh-22 P-72ECh-22 P-73ECh-22 P-74ECh-22 P-75ECh-22 P-76ECh-22 P-77ECh-22 P-78ECh-22 P-79ECh-22 P-80ECh-22 P-81ECh-22 P-82ECh-22 P-83ECh-22 P-84ECh-22 P-85ECh-22 P-86ECh-22 P-87ECh-22 P-88ECh-22 P-89ECh-22 P-90ECh-22 P-91ECh-22 P-92ECh-22 P-93ECh-22 P-94ECh-22 P-95ECh-22 P-96ECh-22 P-97ECh-22 P-98ECh-22 P-99ECh-22 P-100ECh-22 P-101ECh-22 P-102ECh-22 P-103ECh-22 P-104ECh-22 P-105ECh-22 P-106ECh-22 P-107ECh-22 P-108ECh-22 P-109ECh-22 P-110ECh-22 P-111AECh-22 P-112AECh-22 P-113AECh-22 P-114AECh-22 P-115AECh-22 P-116AECh-22 P-117AECh-22 P-118AECh-22 P-119AECh-22 P-120AECh-22 P-121AECh-22 P-122AECh-22 P-123AECh-22 P-124AECh-22 P-125AECh-22 P-126AECh-22 P-127AECh-22 P-128AECh-22 P-129AECh-22 P-130AECh-22 P-131AECh-22 P-132AECh-22 P-133AECh-22 P-134AECh-22 P-135AECh-22 P-136AECh-22 P-137CWPCh-22 P-138CWPCh-22 P-139CWPCh-22 P-140CWPCh-22 P-141CWPCh-22 P-142CWPCh-22 P-143CWPCh-22 P-144CWPCh-22 P-145CPCh-22 P-146CPCh-22 P-147CPCh-22 P-148CPCh-22 P-149CPCh-22 P-150CPCh-22 P-151CPCh-22 P-152CPCh-22 P-153CPCh-22 P-154CPCh-22 P-155CPCh-22 P-156CPCh-22 P-157CPCh-22 P-158CPCh-22 P-159IPCh-22 P-160IPCh-22 P-161MPCh-22 P-162MP

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