   Chapter 22, Problem 60GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

For a tetrahedral complex of a metal in the first transition series, which of the following statements concerning energies of the 3d orbitals is correct?(a) The five d orbitals have the same energy.(b) The d x 2 − y 2 and d z 2 orbitals are higher in energy than the dxz, dyz and dxy orbitals.(c) The dxz, dyz and dxy orbitals are higher in energy than the d x 2 − y 2 and d z 2 orbitals.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: From the given set of statements the one that matches with the tetrahedral complex has to be identified.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

In d orbital splitting the five d orbitals get divided into two sets that are dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Explanation

(c) The dxy,dyz and dxz orbitals are higher in energy than the dx2y2 and dz2 orbitals.

Reasons for correct option:

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis

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