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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

For the high-spin coordination compound Mn(NH3)4Cl2, identify the following.

(a) the oxidation number of manganese

(b) the coordination number for manganese

(c) the coordination geometry for manganese

(d) the number of unpaired electrons per metal atom

(e) whether the complex is diamagnetic or paramagnetic

(f) the number of geometric isomers

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given complex the oxidation number has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The strong field ligands lead to splitting to a higher extent than the weak field ligands and the wavelength of light absorbed depends on the energy gap that is produced by a particular ligand.

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Electronic configuration: It is defined as the distribution of electrons present in the atom over orbitals following certain rules like electrons starts filling the lower energy orbital to higher energy, pairing of electrons does not occur until all the orbitals are singly filled and finally no electrons present in orbital can have same set of quantum numbers.

Oxidation number: It is the number that defines the number of electrons that are gained or lost by the chemical substance.

Isomerism: Two chemical compounds are said to be isomers if they have same number and kind of atoms but different only in their orientation that is structural arrangements.

There are different types of isomerism in which geometric is of one type where the rotation around the atom is restricted like in cis-trans configuration. This is also refereed as cis-trans isomerism.

Explanation

Examining the complex Mn(NH3)4Cl2 clearly shows that the Mn serves as the central atom since it is surrounded by 4NH3 and 2Cl ligands. The periodic table shows that the outer electronic configuration of Mn is 4s23d5

The oxidation state for Mn in given complex is +2 since given complex has 4NH3 and 2Cl where the charge of NH3= 0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given complex the coordination number has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The strong field ligands lead to splitting to a higher extent than the weak field ligands and the wavelength of light absorbed depends on the energy gap that is produced by a particular ligand.

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Electronic configuration: It is defined as the distribution of electrons present in the atom over orbitals following certain rules like electrons starts filling the lower energy orbital to higher energy, pairing of electrons does not occur until all the orbitals are singly filled and finally no electrons present in orbital can have same set of quantum numbers.

Oxidation number: It is the number that defines the number of electrons that are gained or lost by the chemical substance.

Isomerism: Two chemical compounds are said to be isomers if they have same number and kind of atoms but different only in their orientation that is structural arrangements.

There are different types of isomerism in which geometric is of one type where the rotation around the atom is restricted like in cis-trans configuration. This is also refereed as cis-trans isomerism.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given complex the coordination geometry has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The strong field ligands lead to splitting to a higher extent than the weak field ligands and the wavelength of light absorbed depends on the energy gap that is produced by a particular ligand.

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Electronic configuration: It is defined as the distribution of electrons present in the atom over orbitals following certain rules like electrons starts filling the lower energy orbital to higher energy, pairing of electrons does not occur until all the orbitals are singly filled and finally no electrons present in orbital can have same set of quantum numbers.

Oxidation number: It is the number that defines the number of electrons that are gained or lost by the chemical substance.

Isomerism: Two chemical compounds are said to be isomers if they have same number and kind of atoms but different only in their orientation that is structural arrangements.

There are different types of isomerism in which geometric is of one type where the rotation around the atom is restricted like in cis-trans configuration. This is also refereed as cis-trans isomerism.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given complex the unpaired electrons has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The strong field ligands lead to splitting to a higher extent than the weak field ligands and the wavelength of light absorbed depends on the energy gap that is produced by a particular ligand.

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Electronic configuration: It is defined as the distribution of electrons present in the atom over orbitals following certain rules like electrons starts filling the lower energy orbital to higher energy, pairing of electrons does not occur until all the orbitals are singly filled and finally no electrons present in orbital can have same set of quantum numbers.

Oxidation number: It is the number that defines the number of electrons that are gained or lost by the chemical substance.

Isomerism: Two chemical compounds are said to be isomers if they have same number and kind of atoms but different only in their orientation that is structural arrangements.

There are different types of isomerism in which geometric is of one type where the rotation around the atom is restricted like in cis-trans configuration. This is also refereed as cis-trans isomerism.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given complex the magnetic behavior of the central metal atom has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The strong field ligands lead to splitting to a higher extent than the weak field ligands and the wavelength of light absorbed depends on the energy gap that is produced by a particular ligand.

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Electronic configuration: It is defined as the distribution of electrons present in the atom over orbitals following certain rules like electrons starts filling the lower energy orbital to higher energy, pairing of electrons does not occur until all the orbitals are singly filled and finally no electrons present in orbital can have same set of quantum numbers.

Oxidation number: It is the number that defines the number of electrons that are gained or lost by the chemical substance.

Isomerism: Two chemical compounds are said to be isomers if they have same number and kind of atoms but different only in their orientation that is structural arrangements.

There are different types of isomerism in which geometric is of one type where the rotation around the atom is restricted like in cis-trans configuration. This is also refereed as cis-trans isomerism.

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given complex the geometric isomers of the central metal atom has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The strong field ligands lead to splitting to a higher extent than the weak field ligands and the wavelength of light absorbed depends on the energy gap that is produced by a particular ligand.

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Electronic configuration: It is defined as the distribution of electrons present in the atom over orbitals following certain rules like electrons starts filling the lower energy orbital to higher energy, pairing of electrons does not occur until all the orbitals are singly filled and finally no electrons present in orbital can have same set of quantum numbers.

Oxidation number: It is the number that defines the number of electrons that are gained or lost by the chemical substance.

Isomerism: Two chemical compounds are said to be isomers if they have same number and kind of atoms but different only in their orientation that is structural arrangements.

There are different types of isomerism in which geometric is of one type where the rotation around the atom is restricted like in cis-trans configuration. This is also refereed as cis-trans isomerism.

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