   Chapter 22, Problem 84GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Neodymium is a component of powerful magnets.(a) Neodymium has three common oxidation states: +2, +3, and +4. Give the electron configurations for Nd and its three positive oxidation states.(b) Are any of the common Nd ions paramagnetic?(c) Neodymium magnets, which are composed of Nd, Fe, and B, were developed because samarium-based magnets (SmCo) were very costly. What is the empirical formula for the neodymium-based magnet material if it is 26.68% Nd, 72.32% Fe, and the remainder B? Neodymium magnets

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation The electronic configuration of Nd,Nd2+,Nd3+andNd4+ are to be determined. The species that are paramagnetic in nature and the empirical formula of the samarium-based magnet are to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions

Ligand field theory: It is used to explain the bonding between metal and ligand in a coordination complex. Ligand field theory is explained in terms of electrostatic interaction of between metal ion and ligands.

If the complex has minimum one unpaired electron, then they are paramagnetic and are attracted towards the magnetic field. If all the electrons are paired in a complex, then they are diamagnetic and are repelled from the magnetic field.

Electronic configuration shows the electrons distribution of atoms or molecule in its molecular or atomic orbitals. The electrons are distributed in orbitals by following three important rules, Aufbau's Principle, Pauli-exclusion principle, and Hund's Rule.

The number of moles of any substance can be determined using the equation

Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass

Empirical formula: The simplest integer ratio of the element in a chemical formula. It can be obtained by reducing the ratio of elements to the simplest integer form of a molecular formula.

Explanation

Electronic configuration shows the electrons distribution of atoms or molecule in its molecular or atomic orbitals. The electrons are distributed in orbitals by following three important rules, Aufbau's Principle, Pauli-exclusion principle, and Hund's Rule.

The atomic number of Nd is 60.

Therefore,

Electronic configuration of Nd,Nd2+,Nd3+andNd4+ are,

Nd:[Xe]<

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation The electronic configuration of Nd,Nd2+,Nd3+andNd4+ are to be determined. The species that are paramagnetic in nature and the empirical formula of the samarium-based magnet are to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions

Ligand field theory: It is used to explain the bonding between metal and ligand in a coordination complex. Ligand field theory is explained in terms of electrostatic interaction of between metal ion and ligands.

If the complex has minimum one unpaired electron, then they are paramagnetic and are attracted towards the magnetic field. If all the electrons are paired in a complex, then they are diamagnetic and are repelled from the magnetic field.

Electronic configuration shows the electrons distribution of atoms or molecule in its molecular or atomic orbitals. The electrons are distributed in orbitals by following three important rules, Aufbau's Principle, Pauli-exclusion principle, and Hund's Rule.

The number of moles of any substance can be determined using the equation

Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass

Empirical formula: The simplest integer ratio of the element in a chemical formula. It can be obtained by reducing the ratio of elements to the simplest integer form of a molecular formula.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation The electronic configuration of Nd,Nd2+,Nd3+andNd4+ are to be determined. The species that are paramagnetic in nature and the empirical formula of the samarium-based magnet are to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions

Ligand field theory: It is used to explain the bonding between metal and ligand in a coordination complex. Ligand field theory is explained in terms of electrostatic interaction of between metal ion and ligands.

If the complex has minimum one unpaired electron, then they are paramagnetic and are attracted towards the magnetic field. If all the electrons are paired in a complex, then they are diamagnetic and are repelled from the magnetic field.

Electronic configuration shows the electrons distribution of atoms or molecule in its molecular or atomic orbitals. The electrons are distributed in orbitals by following three important rules, Aufbau's Principle, Pauli-exclusion principle, and Hund's Rule.

The number of moles of any substance can be determined using the equation

Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass

Empirical formula: The simplest integer ratio of the element in a chemical formula. It can be obtained by reducing the ratio of elements to the simplest integer form of a molecular formula.

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