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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 23, Problem 1PS
Textbook Problem

In carbon compounds, the carbon atom can achieve an octet configuration in several ways. Draw the Lewis structure of a hydrocarbon compound in which: (a) Carbon is bonded via four single bonds to adjacent atoms, (b) Carbon is bonded via two single bonds and one pi bond; (c) Carbon is bonded via one single bond and one triple bond; (d) Carbon is bonded via two double bonds.

Expert Solution

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure of organic compound in which Carbon is bonded via four single bonds to adjacent atoms  should be drawn

Concept introduction:

  • Lewis structure is also known as Lewis dot structure which represents the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pair of that may exist in the molecule.
  • Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.
  • Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

    Single covalent bond - one pair of each electrons are shared.

    Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

    Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Answer to Problem 1PS

  Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  1

Explanation of Solution

Carbon is bonded via four single bonds to adjacent atoms. Carbon is bonded with four single four hydrogen atoms.

The Lewis electron dot structure for given molecules are determined by first drawing the skeletal structure for the given molecules, then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecules are determined.

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed considering each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

  Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  2

Expert Solution

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure of organic compound in which carbon is bonded via two single bonds and one pi bond should be drawn

Concept introduction:

  • Lewis structure is also known as Lewis dot structure which represents the bonding between atoms of molecules and the lone pair of that may exist in the molecule.
  • Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.
  • Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

    Single covalent bond - one pair of each electrons are shared.

    Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

    Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Answer to Problem 1PS

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  3

Explanation of Solution

Carbon is bonded via two single bonds and one pi bond.

Side overlapping of the two adjacent carbon atoms of orbitals form pi-bond.

The Lewis electron dot structure for given molecules are determined by first drawing the skeletal structure for the given molecules, then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecules are determined.

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed considering each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

  Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  4

Here, the octet rule does not obey for carbon so a double bond is formed between two carbon atoms.

The Lewis structure as shown below.

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  5

Expert Solution

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure of organic compound in which carbon is bonded via one single bond and one triple bond should be drawn

Concept introduction:

  • Lewis structure is also known as Lewis dot structure which represents the bonding between atoms of molecules and the lone pair of that may exist in the molecule.
  • Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.
  • Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

    Single covalent bond - one pair of each electrons are shared.

    Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

    Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Answer to Problem 1PS

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  6

Explanation of Solution

Carbon is bonded via one single bond and one triple bond. Three pairs of electron are shared by two adjacent carbon atoms.

The Lewis electron dot structure for given molecules are determined by first drawing the skeletal structure for the given molecules, then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecules are determined.

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed considering each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

  Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  7

Here, the octet rule does not obey for carbon so a triple bond is formed between two carbon atoms.

The Lewis structure as shown below.

  Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  8

Expert Solution

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure of organic compound in which carbon is bonded via two double bonds should be drawn

Concept introduction:

  • Lewis structure is also known as Lewis dot structure which represents the bonding between atoms of a molecules and the lone pair of that may exist in the molecule.
  • Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.
  • Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

    Single covalent bond - one pair of each electrons are shared.

    Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

    Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Answer to Problem 1PS

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  9

Explanation of Solution

Carbon is bonded via two double bonds. The three adjacent carbon atoms orbitals overlap to form two pi bonds.

The Lewis electron dot structure for given molecules are determined by first drawing the skeletal structure for the given molecules, then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecules are determined.

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed considering each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

  Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  10

Here, the octet rule does not obey for carbon so two double bond are formed between the carbon atoms.

The Lewis structure as shown below.

  Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 23, Problem 1PS , additional homework tip  11

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Chapter 23 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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