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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

There are two ethylheptanes (compounds with a seven-carbon chain and one ethyl substituent). Draw the structures, and name these compounds. Is either isomer chiral?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The structure of two ethylheptane has to be drawn and their systematic name has to be given. The chiral structure among them has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

IUPAC naming for Alkane:

Name the main chain: Find the longest carbon chain and name the chain according to the number of carbon atoms it contains; is also the suffix part of the name.

Number the carbon atoms in the main chain: The carbons are numbered, in which the substituents must get lowest possible numbers.

Identify the substituents, and number each: The number at where substituents are present has to be noted. The substituents written as prefix.

Write the names as a single word: Use the hyphen to separate the numbers from the different prefix; commas to separate numbers. If two or more different substituents are present, arrange them in alphabetical order. If two or more identical substituents are present, use prefixes di-, tri-, tetra-, but this particular prefix should not be used for alphabetizing purpose.

Isomers: Isomers are the compounds which have same molecular formula but have different properties. There are different types of isomers known for example, structural isomers, stereoisomers, geometrical isomers and optical isomers etc

Stereoisomerism: The compounds which have same molecular formula but there is difference in the spatial arrangements of atoms are known as stereoisomers and this phenomenon is known as stereoisomerism.

A chiral carbon is the carbon atom which is substituted to four different groups. Due to presence of chiral carbon a molecule become chiral and it gives optical isomers also that is R and S isomers. For example,

  images

All the substituents are different hence is is a chiral carbon and so molecule.

Explanation

The ethylheptane has seven carbon atom long chain and ethyl group is substituted on one of the carbon atom which should not increase the number of carbon atoms in longest chain.

There are two possibilities which can give such arrangements of atoms.

(1) When ethyl group is substituted at C-3 the structure is drawn below.

  

  • The parent name is heptane for the given alkane so the number of carbon atoms in longest chain are seven.
  • The alkane is monosubstituted by ethyl group at position 3.

Therefore,

The systematic name for this isome is 3-ethylheptane

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Chapter 23 Solutions

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Sect-23.5 P-1.3ACPSect-23.5 P-2.1ACPSect-23.5 P-2.2ACPSect-23.5 P-2.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.1ACPSect-23.5 P-3.2ACPSect-23.5 P-3.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.4ACPSect-23.5 P-3.5ACPCh-23 P-1PSCh-23 P-2PSCh-23 P-3PSCh-23 P-4PSCh-23 P-5PSCh-23 P-6PSCh-23 P-7PSCh-23 P-8PSCh-23 P-9PSCh-23 P-10PSCh-23 P-11PSCh-23 P-12PSCh-23 P-13PSCh-23 P-14PSCh-23 P-15PSCh-23 P-16PSCh-23 P-17PSCh-23 P-18PSCh-23 P-19PSCh-23 P-20PSCh-23 P-21PSCh-23 P-22PSCh-23 P-23PSCh-23 P-24PSCh-23 P-25PSCh-23 P-26PSCh-23 P-27PSCh-23 P-28PSCh-23 P-29PSCh-23 P-30PSCh-23 P-31PSCh-23 P-32PSCh-23 P-33PSCh-23 P-34PSCh-23 P-35PSCh-23 P-36PSCh-23 P-37PSCh-23 P-38PSCh-23 P-39PSCh-23 P-40PSCh-23 P-41PSCh-23 P-42PSCh-23 P-43PSCh-23 P-44PSCh-23 P-45PSCh-23 P-46PSCh-23 P-47PSCh-23 P-48PSCh-23 P-49PSCh-23 P-50PSCh-23 P-51PSCh-23 P-52PSCh-23 P-53PSCh-23 P-54PSCh-23 P-55PSCh-23 P-56PSCh-23 P-57PSCh-23 P-58PSCh-23 P-59PSCh-23 P-60PSCh-23 P-61PSCh-23 P-62PSCh-23 P-63PSCh-23 P-64PSCh-23 P-65PSCh-23 P-66PSCh-23 P-67PSCh-23 P-68PSCh-23 P-69PSCh-23 P-70PSCh-23 P-71PSCh-23 P-72PSCh-23 P-73PSCh-23 P-74PSCh-23 P-75GQCh-23 P-76GQCh-23 P-77GQCh-23 P-78GQCh-23 P-79GQCh-23 P-80GQCh-23 P-81GQCh-23 P-82GQCh-23 P-83GQCh-23 P-84GQCh-23 P-85GQCh-23 P-86GQCh-23 P-87GQCh-23 P-88GQCh-23 P-89GQCh-23 P-90GQCh-23 P-91GQCh-23 P-92GQCh-23 P-93GQCh-23 P-94GQCh-23 P-95GQCh-23 P-96GQCh-23 P-97GQCh-23 P-98GQCh-23 P-99GQCh-23 P-100GQCh-23 P-101GQCh-23 P-102GQCh-23 P-103ILCh-23 P-104ILCh-23 P-105ILCh-23 P-106ILCh-23 P-107ILCh-23 P-108ILCh-23 P-109ILCh-23 P-110ILCh-23 P-111ILCh-23 P-112ILCh-23 P-113ILCh-23 P-114ILCh-23 P-115SCQCh-23 P-116SCQCh-23 P-117SCQCh-23 P-118SCQCh-23 P-119SCQCh-23 P-120SCQCh-23 P-121SCQ

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