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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Identify the hybridization and the bond angles for the following: (a) Carbon bonded via four single bonds to adjacent atoms, (b) Carbon bonded to adjacent atoms via two single bonds and one pi bond; (c) Carbon bonded to adjacent atoms via one single bond and one triple bond; (d) Carbon bonded to adjacent atoms via two double bonds.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization and bond angles of carbon is bonded via four single bonds to adjacent atoms should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.

Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

Single covalent bond  - one pair of each electrons are shared.

Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Hybridization: The phenomenon of formation new orbitals by the mixing of atomic orbital’s with equal energy.

Sp hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and one ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbital. Angle is 1800.

Example - BeCl2

Sp2 hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals. Angle is 1200.

Example –  Ethylene.

Sp3 hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and three ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals. Angle is 109.280.

Example –  Ethane.

Sp3d hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and three ‘p’ orbital and one ‘d’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals.

Example –  PCl5

Bond angle is the angle between two bonds of a molecule and it is determined based on the electron-domain geometry.

[Bond angles: tetrahedral = 109.5o, trigonal planar = 120o, T-shape = 90o]

Explanation

Carbon is bonded via four single bonds to adjacent atoms. Carbon is bonded with four single four hydrogen atoms.

The Lewis structure as shown below.

Let’s write the carbon electronic configuration:

Electronicconfigurationof 1s2s2pCingroundstate Electronicconfigurationof 1s2s2pCinexcitedstate sp3hybridizationinC

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization and bond angle of carbon which is bonded via two single bonds and one pi bond should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.

Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

Single covalent bond  - one pair of each electrons are shared.

Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Hybridization: The phenomenon of formation new orbitals by the mixing of atomic orbital’s with equal energy.

Sp hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and one ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbital. Angle is 1800.

Example - BeCl2

Sp2 hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals. Angle is 1200.

Example –  Ethylene.

Sp3 hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and three ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals. Angle is 109.280.

Example –  Ethane.

Bond angle is the angle between two bonds of a molecule and it is determined based on the electron-domain geometry.

[Bond angles: tetrahedral = 109.5o, trigonal planar = 120o, T-shape = 90o]

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization and bond angles of carbon is bonded via one single bond and one triple bond should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.

Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

Single covalent bond  - one pair of each electrons are shared.

Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Hybridization: The phenomenon of formation new orbitals by the mixing of atomic orbital’s with equal energy.

Sp hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and one ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbital. Angle is 1800.

Example - BeCl2

Sp2 hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals. Angle is 1200.

Example –  Ethylene.

Bond angle is the angle between two bonds of a molecule and it is determined based on the electron-domain geometry.

[Bond angles: tetrahedral = 109.5o, trigonal planar = 120o, T-shape = 90o]

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization and bond angles of carbon which are bonded via two double bonds should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Carbon atomic number 6. Electronic configuration -1s22s22p2.

Carbon has tetra valency. It is bonded with four bonds to adjacent atoms or molecules.

Single covalent bond  - one pair of each electrons are shared.

Double covalent bond – two pair of electrons are shared.

Triple covalent bond – Three pairs of electron are shared.

Hybridization: The phenomenon of formation new orbitals by the mixing of atomic orbital’s with equal energy.

Sp hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and one ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbital. Angle is 1800.

Example - BeCl2

Sp2 hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals. Angle is 1200.

Example –  Ethylene.

Sp3 hybridization: Mixing of one –‘s’ orbital and three ‘p’ orbital. And form new hybrid orbitals. Angle is 109.280.

Example –  Ethane.

Bond angle is the angle between two bonds of a molecule and it is determined based on the electron-domain geometry.

[Bond angles: tetrahedral = 109.5o, trigonal planar = 120o, T-shape = 90o]

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Chapter 23 Solutions

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Sect-23.5 P-1.3ACPSect-23.5 P-2.1ACPSect-23.5 P-2.2ACPSect-23.5 P-2.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.1ACPSect-23.5 P-3.2ACPSect-23.5 P-3.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.4ACPSect-23.5 P-3.5ACPCh-23 P-1PSCh-23 P-2PSCh-23 P-3PSCh-23 P-4PSCh-23 P-5PSCh-23 P-6PSCh-23 P-7PSCh-23 P-8PSCh-23 P-9PSCh-23 P-10PSCh-23 P-11PSCh-23 P-12PSCh-23 P-13PSCh-23 P-14PSCh-23 P-15PSCh-23 P-16PSCh-23 P-17PSCh-23 P-18PSCh-23 P-19PSCh-23 P-20PSCh-23 P-21PSCh-23 P-22PSCh-23 P-23PSCh-23 P-24PSCh-23 P-25PSCh-23 P-26PSCh-23 P-27PSCh-23 P-28PSCh-23 P-29PSCh-23 P-30PSCh-23 P-31PSCh-23 P-32PSCh-23 P-33PSCh-23 P-34PSCh-23 P-35PSCh-23 P-36PSCh-23 P-37PSCh-23 P-38PSCh-23 P-39PSCh-23 P-40PSCh-23 P-41PSCh-23 P-42PSCh-23 P-43PSCh-23 P-44PSCh-23 P-45PSCh-23 P-46PSCh-23 P-47PSCh-23 P-48PSCh-23 P-49PSCh-23 P-50PSCh-23 P-51PSCh-23 P-52PSCh-23 P-53PSCh-23 P-54PSCh-23 P-55PSCh-23 P-56PSCh-23 P-57PSCh-23 P-58PSCh-23 P-59PSCh-23 P-60PSCh-23 P-61PSCh-23 P-62PSCh-23 P-63PSCh-23 P-64PSCh-23 P-65PSCh-23 P-66PSCh-23 P-67PSCh-23 P-68PSCh-23 P-69PSCh-23 P-70PSCh-23 P-71PSCh-23 P-72PSCh-23 P-73PSCh-23 P-74PSCh-23 P-75GQCh-23 P-76GQCh-23 P-77GQCh-23 P-78GQCh-23 P-79GQCh-23 P-80GQCh-23 P-81GQCh-23 P-82GQCh-23 P-83GQCh-23 P-84GQCh-23 P-85GQCh-23 P-86GQCh-23 P-87GQCh-23 P-88GQCh-23 P-89GQCh-23 P-90GQCh-23 P-91GQCh-23 P-92GQCh-23 P-93GQCh-23 P-94GQCh-23 P-95GQCh-23 P-96GQCh-23 P-97GQCh-23 P-98GQCh-23 P-99GQCh-23 P-100GQCh-23 P-101GQCh-23 P-102GQCh-23 P-103ILCh-23 P-104ILCh-23 P-105ILCh-23 P-106ILCh-23 P-107ILCh-23 P-108ILCh-23 P-109ILCh-23 P-110ILCh-23 P-111ILCh-23 P-112ILCh-23 P-113ILCh-23 P-114ILCh-23 P-115SCQCh-23 P-116SCQCh-23 P-117SCQCh-23 P-118SCQCh-23 P-119SCQCh-23 P-120SCQCh-23 P-121SCQ

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