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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Consider the following molecules:

1 images

2 images

3 H2C=CHCH2OH

4 images

(a) What is the result of treating compound 1 with NaBH4? What is the functional group in the product? Name the product.

(b) Draw the structure of the reaction product from compounds 2 and 4. What is the functional group in the product?

(c) What compound results from adding H2 to compound 3? Name the reaction product.

(d) What compound results from adding NaOH to compound 2?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The result of treating compound 1 with NaBH4 has to be given. The functional group and the name of the product has to be identified

Concept introduction:

Reduction reaction: The reaction in which addition of hydrogen takes place is known as reduction reaction.

The reduction of a ketone gives a secondary alcohol. The reduction can be carried out by using hydride reagents such as NaBH4 and LiAlH4.

Alcohols are the hydrocarbons which have OH group attached to one of the carbon atom of the linear chain. The suffix name for OH group is “-ol” written in the end of parent name with its position.

Alcohols can be of three types on the basis of degree of carbon atom to which the OH group is attached.

Primary alcohol: The OH group is attached to primary carbon atom.

Secondary alcohol: The OH group is attached to secondary carbon atom

Tertiary alcohol: The OH group is attached to tertiary carbon atom

images

Explanation

Compound 1 s,

It is a ketone

The reaction between compound 1 and NaBH4 is the reduction reaction of a ketone.

The reduction of a ketone gives a secondary alcohol in presence of NaBH4

The reaction is in which the compound 1 is undergoing reduction gives a secondary alcohol

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The structure of the reaction product from comounds 2 and 4 has to be drawn. The functional group of the product has to be identified

Concept introduction:

Ester: One OR' group is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom of the compound. It is represented as RCOOR'. The hydrogen atom of COOH is replaced by an alkyl group.

The name for an ester molecule can be written by using alkyl chain R' for prefix of the parent name. The IUPAC name for the esters is written by replacing the ‘e’ of alkane R to ‘oate’

Esterification reaction: Esters are prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol molecule with the elimination of water molecule. The addition of a strong acid such as H2SO4 is used to increase the rate of reaction.

Here, the OH group is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom of the carboxylic acid is being replaced by OR' the in the alcohol forming ester and water.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound that results from the addition of H2 to compound 3 has to be given. The name of the product has to be identified

Concept introduction:

Hydrogenation: The addition of hydrogen to unsaturated compounds to convert into saturated compounds in the presence of catalyst.

An alkene undergo hydrogentaion reaction when it is treated with hydrogen gas. The addition of two hydrogen atoms takes place on the carbon-carbon double bond. The product formed is called as alkane as there will be only carbon-carbon single bonds in the molecule.

Alcohols are the hydrocarbons which have OH group attached to one of the carbon atom of the linear chain. The suffix name for OH group is “-ol” written in the end of parent name with its position.

Alcohols can be of three types on the basis of degree of carbon atom to which the OH group is attached.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound that results from the addition of NaOH to compound 2 has to be given.

Concept introduction:

The reaction of carboxylic acid with NaOH is the neutralization reaction of an acid with base. The product obtained is the sodium salt of the acid and water.

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Chapter 23 Solutions

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Sect-23.5 P-1.3ACPSect-23.5 P-2.1ACPSect-23.5 P-2.2ACPSect-23.5 P-2.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.1ACPSect-23.5 P-3.2ACPSect-23.5 P-3.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.4ACPSect-23.5 P-3.5ACPCh-23 P-1PSCh-23 P-2PSCh-23 P-3PSCh-23 P-4PSCh-23 P-5PSCh-23 P-6PSCh-23 P-7PSCh-23 P-8PSCh-23 P-9PSCh-23 P-10PSCh-23 P-11PSCh-23 P-12PSCh-23 P-13PSCh-23 P-14PSCh-23 P-15PSCh-23 P-16PSCh-23 P-17PSCh-23 P-18PSCh-23 P-19PSCh-23 P-20PSCh-23 P-21PSCh-23 P-22PSCh-23 P-23PSCh-23 P-24PSCh-23 P-25PSCh-23 P-26PSCh-23 P-27PSCh-23 P-28PSCh-23 P-29PSCh-23 P-30PSCh-23 P-31PSCh-23 P-32PSCh-23 P-33PSCh-23 P-34PSCh-23 P-35PSCh-23 P-36PSCh-23 P-37PSCh-23 P-38PSCh-23 P-39PSCh-23 P-40PSCh-23 P-41PSCh-23 P-42PSCh-23 P-43PSCh-23 P-44PSCh-23 P-45PSCh-23 P-46PSCh-23 P-47PSCh-23 P-48PSCh-23 P-49PSCh-23 P-50PSCh-23 P-51PSCh-23 P-52PSCh-23 P-53PSCh-23 P-54PSCh-23 P-55PSCh-23 P-56PSCh-23 P-57PSCh-23 P-58PSCh-23 P-59PSCh-23 P-60PSCh-23 P-61PSCh-23 P-62PSCh-23 P-63PSCh-23 P-64PSCh-23 P-65PSCh-23 P-66PSCh-23 P-67PSCh-23 P-68PSCh-23 P-69PSCh-23 P-70PSCh-23 P-71PSCh-23 P-72PSCh-23 P-73PSCh-23 P-74PSCh-23 P-75GQCh-23 P-76GQCh-23 P-77GQCh-23 P-78GQCh-23 P-79GQCh-23 P-80GQCh-23 P-81GQCh-23 P-82GQCh-23 P-83GQCh-23 P-84GQCh-23 P-85GQCh-23 P-86GQCh-23 P-87GQCh-23 P-88GQCh-23 P-89GQCh-23 P-90GQCh-23 P-91GQCh-23 P-92GQCh-23 P-93GQCh-23 P-94GQCh-23 P-95GQCh-23 P-96GQCh-23 P-97GQCh-23 P-98GQCh-23 P-99GQCh-23 P-100GQCh-23 P-101GQCh-23 P-102GQCh-23 P-103ILCh-23 P-104ILCh-23 P-105ILCh-23 P-106ILCh-23 P-107ILCh-23 P-108ILCh-23 P-109ILCh-23 P-110ILCh-23 P-111ILCh-23 P-112ILCh-23 P-113ILCh-23 P-114ILCh-23 P-115SCQCh-23 P-116SCQCh-23 P-117SCQCh-23 P-118SCQCh-23 P-119SCQCh-23 P-120SCQCh-23 P-121SCQ

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