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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Rank the three types of natural radiation (α, β, γ):

  1. (a) In order of increasing mass
  2. (b) In order of increasing penetrating power

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The three types of natural radiation (α,β,γ) in the order of increasing mass has to be ranked.

Concept introduction:

Alpha particle:

  • Alpha rays (or) Alpha particles are the positively charged particles.
  • A highly energetic helium nucleus which contains two protons and two neutrons is called the alpha particle.
  • Mass of an alpha particle is 4 times the mass of a proton or Hydrogen nucleus and is equal to that of helium nucleus.

Beta particle:

  • Beta particles are highly energetic electrons.
  • They are negatively charged and have a negligible mass.
  • The mass of a Beta particle is equal to the mass of an electron.

Gamma particle:

  • The Waves from the high frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Which do not have any mass are called the gamma rays.
  • They possess no charge and are therefore unaffected by electric or magnetic field.
Answer

Increasing order of mass of three types of natural radiation (α,β,γ) is γ<β<α

Explanation

The alpha particle has highest mass when compared to Beta and Gamma particles because the Alpha particles are the positively charged particles. Beta has more mass than the gamma because Beta has negatively charged particles and gamma has negligible mass. Then the increasing order of mass among radiations α,β,γ is γ<β<α.

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The three types of natural radiation (α,β,γ) in order of increasing penetrating power

has to be ranked.

Concept introduction:

Alpha particle:

  • Alpha particles have the least penetration power but the greatest ionization power.
  • They cannot penetrate the skin but this does not mean that they are not dangerous, since they have a great ionization power.
  • Their penetration power is 1/10,000 of the γ-rays and 1/100 that at β-rays.

Beta particle:

  • They are 100 times more penetrating than alpha particles but 1/100 times due to γ- rays.
  • Beta particles have less ionization power than the alpha particles.

Gamma particle:

  • They have greatest power of penetration.
  • They are the least ionizing but most penetrating power.
  • They have large penetrating power 100 times that of beta-particles and 10,000 times that of alpha-particle
Explanation

The Gamma particle has the highest increasing penetrating power when compare to Alpha and Beta particles because the Gamma particles are the least ionizing power but most penetrating power. Beta has more penetrating power than Alpha because, beta has highest ionizing power and alpha has lowest ionising power. Then the increasing penetrating power among radiations α,β,γ is α<β<γ.

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