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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 25, Problem 1PS
Textbook Problem

Rank the three types of natural radiation (α, β, γ):

  1. (a) In order of increasing mass
  2. (b) In order of increasing penetrating power

Expert Solution

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The three types of natural radiation (α,β,γ) in the order of increasing mass has to be ranked.

Concept introduction:

Alpha particle:

  • Alpha rays (or) Alpha particles are the positively charged particles.
  • A highly energetic helium nucleus which contains two protons and two neutrons is called the alpha particle.
  • Mass of an alpha particle is 4 times the mass of a proton or Hydrogen nucleus and is equal to that of helium nucleus.

Beta particle:

  • Beta particles are highly energetic electrons.
  • They are negatively charged and have a negligible mass.
  • The mass of a Beta particle is equal to the mass of an electron.

Gamma particle:

  • The Waves from the high frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Which do not have any mass are called the gamma rays.
  • They possess no charge and are therefore unaffected by electric or magnetic field.

Answer to Problem 1PS

Increasing order of mass of three types of natural radiation (α,β,γ) is γ<β<α

Explanation of Solution

The alpha particle has highest mass when compared to Beta and Gamma particles because the Alpha particles are the positively charged particles. Beta has more mass than the gamma because Beta has negatively charged particles and gamma has negligible mass. Then the increasing order of mass among radiations α,β,γ is γ<β<α.

Expert Solution

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The three types of natural radiation (α,β,γ) in order of increasing penetrating power

has to be ranked.

Concept introduction:

Alpha particle:

  • Alpha particles have the least penetration power but the greatest ionization power.
  • They cannot penetrate the skin but this does not mean that they are not dangerous, since they have a great ionization power.
  • Their penetration power is 1/10,000 of the γ-rays and 1/100 that at β-rays.

Beta particle:

  • They are 100 times more penetrating than alpha particles but 1/100 times due to γ- rays.
  • Beta particles have less ionization power than the alpha particles.

Gamma particle:

  • They have greatest power of penetration.
  • They are the least ionizing but most penetrating power.
  • They have large penetrating power 100 times that of beta-particles and 10,000 times that of alpha-particle

Explanation of Solution

The Gamma particle has the highest increasing penetrating power when compare to Alpha and Beta particles because the Gamma particles are the least ionizing power but most penetrating power. Beta has more penetrating power than Alpha because, beta has highest ionizing power and alpha has lowest ionising power. Then the increasing penetrating power among radiations α,β,γ is α<β<γ.

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Chapter 25 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
Ch. 25.2 - (a) Six and four particles are emitted in the...Ch. 25.2 - Indicate the symbol, the mass number, and the...Ch. 25.3 - Write an equation for the probable mode of decay...Ch. 25.3 - Calculate the binding energy per nucleon, in...Ch. 25.4 - Tritium (13H), a radioactive isotope of hydrogen,...Ch. 25.4 - (a) A sample of Ca3(PO4)2 containing phosphorus-32...Ch. 25.4 - A sample of the inner part of a redwood tree...Ch. 25.5 - Technetium is one of the two elements with atomic...Ch. 25.8 - To measure the solubility for PbCrO4 you mix a...Ch. 25.8 - There are two major isotopes of uranium, 235U...Ch. 25.8 - Rates of decomposition can be measured based on...Ch. 25.8 - Uranium-235 is an alpha emitter. Write an equation...Ch. 25.8 - Calculate the molar mass (atomic weight) of...Ch. 25.8 - Write an equation for the decay of 99Mo to 99Tc.Ch. 25.8 - What is the oxidation number of Tc in the...Ch. 25.8 - What amount of NaTcO4 is there in 1.0 g of the...Ch. 25.8 - If you have 1.0 g of Tc, what mass remains at the...Ch. 25.8 - 99Tc decays to 99Ru. What particle is produced in...Ch. 25.8 - Speculate on the reason the TcO4 ion is held less...Ch. 25.8 - Write a balanced equation for the radioactive...Ch. 25.8 - The decomposition of 87Rb occurs by which of the...Ch. 25.8 - Determine the rate constant for the radioactive...Ch. 25.8 - The oldest dated meteorites have ages of about 4.5...Ch. 25 - Rank the three types of natural radiation (, , ):...Ch. 25 - What information was used to identify α and β...Ch. 25 - How is Figure 25.3 used to predict the type of...Ch. 25 - Outline how the synthesis of new isotopes is...Ch. 25 - Cobalt-60, used as a source of high-energy gamma...Ch. 25 - Describe the process that uses carbon-14 for...Ch. 25 - Explain why carbon-14 dating is limited to the...Ch. 25 - How many alpha and beta emissions occur in the...Ch. 25 - The uranium-235 radioactive decay series includes...Ch. 25 - Chain reactions occur in a series of steps...Ch. 25 - The fission of uranium-235 releases 2 1010 kJ/...Ch. 25 - In a nuclear reactor, what is a moderator and what...Ch. 25 - Identify the other element generated in the...Ch. 25 - What are the units associated with each of the...Ch. 25 - The interaction of radiation with matter has both...Ch. 25 - What are the essential criteria for a radioactive...Ch. 25 - Write equations that describe the preparation of...Ch. 25 - Oxygen-15 is used in the medical procedure called...Ch. 25 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of food...Ch. 25 - Complete the following nuclear equations. Write...Ch. 25 - Complete the following nuclear equations. Write...Ch. 25 - Complete the following nuclear equations. Write...Ch. 25 - Complete the following nuclear equations. Write...Ch. 25 - The uranium-235 radioactive decay series,...Ch. 25 - The thorium-232 radioactive decay series,...Ch. 25 - What particle is emitted in the following nuclear...Ch. 25 - What is the product of the following nuclear decay...Ch. 25 - Predict the probable mode of decay for each of the...Ch. 25 - Predict the probable mode of decay for each of the...Ch. 25 - (a) Which of the following nuclei decay by decay?...Ch. 25 - (a) Which of the following nuclei decay by 10...Ch. 25 - Boron has two stable isotopes, 10B and 11B....Ch. 25 - Calculate the binding energy in kilojoules per...Ch. 25 - Calculate the binding energy per mole of nucleons...Ch. 25 - Calculate the binding energy per mole of nucleons...Ch. 25 - Calculate the binding energy per mole of nucleons...Ch. 25 - Calculate the binding energy per mole of nucleons...Ch. 25 - Copper(II) acetate containing 64Cu is used to...Ch. 25 - Gold-198 is used in the diagnosis of liver...Ch. 25 - Iodine-131 is used to treat thyroid cancer. (a)...Ch. 25 - Phosphorus-32 is used in the form of Na2HPO4 in...Ch. 25 - Gallium-67 (t = 78.25 hours) is used in the...Ch. 25 - Iodine-131 (t = 8.04 days), a emitter, is used to...Ch. 25 - Radon has been the focus of much attention...Ch. 25 - Strontium-90 is a hazardous radioactive isotope...Ch. 25 - Radioactive cobalt-60 is used extensively in...Ch. 25 - Scandium occurs in nature as a single isotope,...Ch. 25 - Americium-240 is made by bombarding plutonium-239...Ch. 25 - There are two isotopes of americium, both with...Ch. 25 - The superheavy element 287FI (element 114) was...Ch. 25 - To synthesize the heavier transuranium elements, a...Ch. 25 - Deuterium nuclei (H12) are particularly effective...Ch. 25 - Some important discoveries in scientific history...Ch. 25 - Boron is an effective absorber of neutrons. When...Ch. 25 - Some of the reactions explored by Ernest...Ch. 25 - A technique to date geological samples uses...Ch. 25 - Tritium, H13, is one of the nuclei used in fusion...Ch. 25 - Phosphorus occurs in nature as a single isotope,...Ch. 25 - In June 1972, natural fission reactors, which...Ch. 25 - If a shortage in worldwide supplies of fissionable...Ch. 25 - When a neutron is captured by an atomic nucleus,...Ch. 25 - The synthesis of livermorium: (a) Lv-296 is made...Ch. 25 - Some important discoveries in scientific history...Ch. 25 - A piece of charred bone found in the ruins of a...Ch. 25 - A sample of wood from a Thracian chariot found in...Ch. 25 - The isotope of polonium that was most likely...Ch. 25 - Sodium-23 (in a sample of NaCI) is subjected to...Ch. 25 - The age of minerals can sometimes be determined by...Ch. 25 - To measure the volume of the blood system of an...Ch. 25 - The average energy output of a good grade of coal...Ch. 25 - Collision of an electron and a positron results in...Ch. 25 - The principle underlying the isotope dilution...Ch. 25 - Radioactive isotopes are often used as "tracers'...Ch. 25 - The thorium decay series includes the...Ch. 25 - The last unknown element between bismuth and...Ch. 25 - You might wonder how it is possible to determine...Ch. 25 - Marie and Pierre Curie isolated radium and...

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