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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918

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BuyFindarrow_forward

General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918
Chapter 25, Problem 25.70EP
Textbook Problem
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In the context of ketogenesis, classify each of the reactions in Problem 25-69 as (1) a condensation, (2) a chain cleavage, (3) a hydrogenation, or (4) an oxidation.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reaction C2+C2C4 has to be classified as condensation, chain cleavage, hydrogenation or oxidation.

Concept introduction:

Ketone bodies are water-soluble molecules which are synthesized from acetyl CoA through the process of ketogenesis. Ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondria of the liver cells. The initial reactants are the molecules of acetyl CoA which are produced by the β-oxidation of fatty acid molecules. Ketone bodies are generally produced when the amount of acetyl CoA in the body is much larger than the amount of oxaloacetate. This happens due to the carbohydrate-lipid imbalance in the body caused by much smaller intake of food rich in carbohydrates, or inefficient processing of glucose by the body.

Explanation of Solution

In the condensation reaction, two reactant molecule condense together and small molecules split out from the reaction.

Acetyl CoA is a C2 molecule. The condensation of two such C2 ...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reaction C4C4 has to be classified as condensation, chain cleavage, hydrogenation or oxidation.

Concept introduction:

Ketone bodies are water-soluble molecules which are synthesized from acetyl CoA through the process of ketogenesis. Ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondria of the liver cells. The initial reactants are the molecules of acetyl CoA which are produced by the β-oxidation of fatty acid molecules. Ketone bodies are generally produced when the amount of acetyl CoA in the body is much larger than the amount of oxaloacetate. This happens due to the carbohydrate-lipid imbalance in the body caused by much smaller intake of food rich in carbohydrates, or inefficient processing of glucose by the body.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reaction C6C4+C2 has to be classified as condensation, chain cleavage, hydrogenation or oxidation.

Concept introduction:

Ketone bodies are water-soluble molecules which are synthesized from acetyl CoA through the process of ketogenesis. Ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondria of the liver cells. The initial reactants are the molecules of acetyl CoA which are produced by the β-oxidation of fatty acid molecules. Ketone bodies are generally produced when the amount of acetyl CoA in the body is much larger than the amount of oxaloacetate. This happens due to the carbohydrate-lipid imbalance in the body caused by much smaller intake of food rich in carbohydrates, or inefficient processing of glucose by the body.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reaction C4+C2C6 has to be classified as condensation, chain cleavage, hydrogenation or oxidation.

Concept introduction:

Ketone bodies are water-soluble molecules which are synthesized from acetyl CoA through the process of ketogenesis. Ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondria of the liver cells. The initial reactants are the molecules of acetyl CoA which are produced by the β-oxidation of fatty acid molecules. Ketone bodies are generally produced when the amount of acetyl CoA in the body is much larger than the amount of oxaloacetate. This happens due to the carbohydrate-lipid imbalance in the body caused by much smaller intake of food rich in carbohydrates, or inefficient processing of glucose by the body.

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Chapter 25 Solutions

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 25.3 - After the first stage of glycerol metabolism, the...Ch. 25.4 - In the oxidation of fatty acids, what two...Ch. 25.4 - In the oxidation of fatty acids, what molecule...Ch. 25.4 - The correct sequence for the four reactions of the...Ch. 25.4 - The correct sequence for the four reactions of the...Ch. 25.4 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway are...Ch. 25.4 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway are...Ch. 25.5 - How many acetyl CoA molecules are produced when a...Ch. 25.5 - How many FADH2 and NADH molecules are produced,...Ch. 25.5 - Net ATP production during a -oxidation process is...Ch. 25.6 - Which of the following is not a ketone body? a....Ch. 25.6 - How many of the ketone bodies are C4 molecules? a....Ch. 25.6 - How many acetyl CoA molecules are used as...Ch. 25.6 - The correct sequence for the four reactions of...Ch. 25.6 - The characterization C4 + C2C6 applies to which...Ch. 25.6 - How many units of acetyl CoA are produced when an...Ch. 25.7 - The process of lipogenesis occurs in the a....Ch. 25.7 - The notation ACP stands for a. acyl carnitine...Ch. 25.7 - Which of the following is the correct...Ch. 25.7 - Steps 2 through 4 of the chain elongation phase of...Ch. 25.7 - The reducing agent needed in the process of...Ch. 25.7 - The carrier of the two carbon units used to...Ch. 25.8 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 25.8 - The ketoacid intermediates in lipogenesis and the...Ch. 25.9 - Which of the following fates for fatty...Ch. 25.9 - Which of the following is a correct statement...Ch. 25.9 - How many molecules of acetyl CoA are consumed in...Ch. 25.9 - Acetyl CoA cannot be converted to which of the...Ch. 25.10 - Which of the following substances cannot be...Ch. 25.10 - Which of the following processes could not be used...Ch. 25.10 - Which of the following processes occurs within the...Ch. 25.11 - How many different B vitamins participate in the...Ch. 25.11 - Which of the following B-vitamin-containing...Ch. 25.11 - Which of the following B-vitamin-containing...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - What is a fatty acid micelle?Ch. 25 - What is a chylomicron?Ch. 25 - What are the products of the complete hydrolysis...Ch. 25 - What are the major products of the incomplete...Ch. 25 - At what location are free fatty acids and...Ch. 25 - At what location are free fatty acids and...Ch. 25 - What is the distinctive structural feature of...Ch. 25 - What is the major metabolic function of adipose...Ch. 25 - What is triacylglycerol mobilization?Ch. 25 - What situation signals the need for mobilization...Ch. 25 - What role does cAMP play in triacylglycerol...Ch. 25 - Triacylglycerols in adipose tissue do not enter...Ch. 25 - In which step of glycerol metabolism does each of...Ch. 25 - In which step of glycerol metabolism does each of...Ch. 25 - How does the structure of glycerol 3-phosphate...Ch. 25 - How does the structure of dihydroxyacetone...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 25 - Identify the oxidizing agent needed in Step 1 of a...Ch. 25 - Identify the oxidizing agent needed in Step 3 of a...Ch. 25 - What functional group change occurs in each of the...Ch. 25 - What type of reaction occurs in each of the...Ch. 25 - What is the configuration of the unsaturated enoyl...Ch. 25 - What is the configuration of the -hydroxyacyl CoA...Ch. 25 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 25 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 25 - What type of compoundacyl CoA, enoyl CoA,...Ch. 25 - What type of compoundacyl CoA, enoyl CoA,...Ch. 25 - In the context of fatty acid oxidation to acetyl...Ch. 25 - In the context of fatty acid oxidation to acetyl...Ch. 25 - In which step (of Steps 1 through 4) and in which...Ch. 25 - In which step (of Steps 1 through 4) and in which...Ch. 25 - Which compound(s) in Problem 25-39 undergo(es) a...Ch. 25 - Which compound(s) in Problem 25-40 undergo(es) a...Ch. 25 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway would be...Ch. 25 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway would be...Ch. 25 - The degradation of cis-3-hexenoic acid, a 6:1...Ch. 25 - The degradation of cis-4-hexenoic acid, a 6:1...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 25 - Identify the major fuel for skeletal muscle in a....Ch. 25 - Explain why fatty acids cannot serve as fuel for...Ch. 25 - Consider the conversion of a C10 saturated acid...Ch. 25 - Consider the conversion of a C14 saturated acid...Ch. 25 - How many ATP molecules ultimately result from...Ch. 25 - How many ATP molecules ultimately result from...Ch. 25 - What is the net ATP production for the complete...Ch. 25 - What is the net ATP production for the complete...Ch. 25 - Which yield more FADH2, saturated or unsaturated...Ch. 25 - Which yield more NADH, saturated or unsaturated...Ch. 25 - Compare the energy released when 1 g of...Ch. 25 - Compare the net ATP produced from 1 molecule of...Ch. 25 - What three body conditions are conducive to ketone...Ch. 25 - Why does a deficiency of carbohydrates in the diet...Ch. 25 - What is the relationship between oxaloacetate...Ch. 25 - What is the relationship between pyruvate...Ch. 25 - Draw the structures of the three compounds...Ch. 25 - Two of the three ketone bodies can be formed from...Ch. 25 - Identify the ketone body (or bodies) to which each...Ch. 25 - Identify the ketone body (or bodies) to which each...Ch. 25 - In which step of ketogenesis is each of the...Ch. 25 - In the context of ketogenesis, classify each of...Ch. 25 - In the context of ketogenesis, indicate whether...Ch. 25 - In the context of ketogenesis reaction steps,...Ch. 25 - Before acetoacetate can be used as a fuel, it must...Ch. 25 - What are the names of the reactants and products...Ch. 25 - What is ketosis?Ch. 25 - Severe ketosis situations produce acidosis....Ch. 25 - In the context of lipid metabolism, indicate...Ch. 25 - In the context of lipid metabolism, indicate...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following lipogenesis...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following lipogenesis...Ch. 25 - For the first cycle of the lipogenesis pathway,...Ch. 25 - For the first cycle of the lipogenesis pathway,...Ch. 25 - What is the name of the intermediate compound...Ch. 25 - What is the name of the intermediate compound...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following...Ch. 25 - What role does molecular oxygen, O2, play in fatty...Ch. 25 - What is the characteristic structural feature of...Ch. 25 - Consider the biosynthesis of a C14 saturated fatty...Ch. 25 - Consider the biosynthesis of a C16 saturated fatty...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 25 - In which of the processes (1) glycerol metabolism...Ch. 25 - In which of the processes (1) glycerol metabolism...Ch. 25 - What is the citric acid cycle diacid intermediate...Ch. 25 - What is the lipogenesis C4ACP monoacid...Ch. 25 - Identify each of the following C4 species as a (1)...Ch. 25 - Identify each of the following C4 species as a...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether or not each of the following...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether or not each of the following...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following metabolic...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following metabolic...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following B vitamins...Ch. 25 - Indicate whether each of the following B vitamins...

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