   Chapter 25, Problem 76SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The thorium decay series includes the isotope22890Th. Determine the sequence of nuclei on going from 23290Th to 22890Th.

Interpretation Introduction

INTERPRETATION: The sequence of nuclei for transformation from T90232h to T90228h should be determined.

Concept introduction: In the radioactive decay process the unstable isotopes loses their energy by emitting radiation in order to attain stable species. It is converted in to stable isotopes by emitting positron +10β , gamma 00γ , Beta β10, alpha 24He and or by electron capture 10e .

Isotopes: The two elements with same atomic number but with different mass number are considered as isotopes of each other.

The radioactive decay series for thorium is as follows,

(Th-232αRa-228βAc-228βTh-228αRa-224αPo-212βBi-212βPb-212αPo-216αRn-220αPb-208)

Explanation

In order to attain T90228h from T90232h, T90232h should undergo one alpha and two consecutive beta decays.

In this radioactive decay series thorium-232 transmuted to radium-228 by the emission of alpha particle (α24) this is first emission.

In this decay the atomic number of T90232h gets reduced by 2 and the mass number gets reduced by 4 results to give R88228a.

Then radium-228 is transmuted to actinium-228 by the emission of beta particle where the mass number does not change and the atomic number gets increased by 1 since the charge of beta β10 explains it

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