Chapter 2.P, Problem 19P

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8th Edition

James Stewart

ISBN: 9781285740621

Textbook Problem

Suppose that we replace the parabolic mirror of problem 18 by a spherical mirror. Although the mirror has no focus, we can show the existence of an *approximate* focus. In the figure, *C* is a semicircle with center *O*. A ray of light coming in toward the mirror parallel to the axis along the line *PQ *will be reflected to the point *R* on the axis so that
*R* as *P* is taken closer and closer to the axis?

To determine

**To check:**

Effect on point R as P is taken closer and closer to the axis.

Explanation

**1) Concept:**

Here we use Laws of Cosines to simplify given examples.

**2) Formula:**

Laws of cosine: Let

**3) Calculations:**

From figure,

Therefore

Hence,

By using Laws of cosines,

Sect-2.1 P-1ESect-2.1 P-2ESect-2.1 P-3ESect-2.1 P-4ESect-2.1 P-5ESect-2.1 P-6ESect-2.1 P-7ESect-2.1 P-8ESect-2.1 P-9ESect-2.1 P-10E

Sect-2.1 P-11ESect-2.1 P-12ESect-2.1 P-13ESect-2.1 P-14ESect-2.1 P-15ESect-2.1 P-16ESect-2.1 P-17ESect-2.1 P-18ESect-2.1 P-19ESect-2.1 P-20ESect-2.1 P-21ESect-2.1 P-22ESect-2.1 P-23ESect-2.1 P-24ESect-2.1 P-25ESect-2.1 P-26ESect-2.1 P-27ESect-2.1 P-28ESect-2.1 P-29ESect-2.1 P-30ESect-2.1 P-31ESect-2.1 P-32ESect-2.1 P-33ESect-2.1 P-34ESect-2.1 P-35ESect-2.1 P-36ESect-2.1 P-37ESect-2.1 P-38ESect-2.1 P-39ESect-2.1 P-40ESect-2.1 P-41ESect-2.1 P-42ESect-2.1 P-43ESect-2.1 P-44ESect-2.1 P-45ESect-2.1 P-46ESect-2.1 P-47ESect-2.1 P-48ESect-2.1 P-49ESect-2.1 P-50ESect-2.1 P-51ESect-2.1 P-52ESect-2.1 P-53ESect-2.1 P-54ESect-2.1 P-55ESect-2.1 P-56ESect-2.1 P-57ESect-2.1 P-58ESect-2.1 P-59ESect-2.1 P-60ESect-2.1 P-61ESect-2.2 P-1ESect-2.2 P-2ESect-2.2 P-3ESect-2.2 P-4ESect-2.2 P-5ESect-2.2 P-6ESect-2.2 P-7ESect-2.2 P-8ESect-2.2 P-9ESect-2.2 P-10ESect-2.2 P-11ESect-2.2 P-12ESect-2.2 P-13ESect-2.2 P-14ESect-2.2 P-15ESect-2.2 P-16ESect-2.2 P-17ESect-2.2 P-18ESect-2.2 P-19ESect-2.2 P-20ESect-2.2 P-21ESect-2.2 P-22ESect-2.2 P-23ESect-2.2 P-24ESect-2.2 P-25ESect-2.2 P-26ESect-2.2 P-27ESect-2.2 P-28ESect-2.2 P-29ESect-2.2 P-30ESect-2.2 P-31ESect-2.2 P-32ESect-2.2 P-33ESect-2.2 P-34ESect-2.2 P-35ESect-2.2 P-36ESect-2.2 P-37ESect-2.2 P-38ESect-2.2 P-39ESect-2.2 P-40ESect-2.2 P-41ESect-2.2 P-42ESect-2.2 P-43ESect-2.2 P-44ESect-2.2 P-45ESect-2.2 P-46ESect-2.2 P-47ESect-2.2 P-48ESect-2.2 P-49ESect-2.2 P-50ESect-2.2 P-51ESect-2.2 P-52ESect-2.2 P-53ESect-2.2 P-54ESect-2.2 P-55ESect-2.2 P-56ESect-2.2 P-57ESect-2.2 P-58ESect-2.2 P-59ESect-2.2 P-60ESect-2.2 P-61ESect-2.2 P-62ESect-2.2 P-63ESect-2.2 P-64ESect-2.2 P-65ESect-2.3 P-1ESect-2.3 P-2ESect-2.3 P-3ESect-2.3 P-4ESect-2.3 P-5ESect-2.3 P-6ESect-2.3 P-7ESect-2.3 P-8ESect-2.3 P-9ESect-2.3 P-10ESect-2.3 P-11ESect-2.3 P-12ESect-2.3 P-13ESect-2.3 P-14ESect-2.3 P-15ESect-2.3 P-16ESect-2.3 P-17ESect-2.3 P-18ESect-2.3 P-19ESect-2.3 P-20ESect-2.3 P-21ESect-2.3 P-22ESect-2.3 P-23ESect-2.3 P-24ESect-2.3 P-25ESect-2.3 P-26ESect-2.3 P-27ESect-2.3 P-28ESect-2.3 P-29ESect-2.3 P-30ESect-2.3 P-31ESect-2.3 P-32ESect-2.3 P-33ESect-2.3 P-34ESect-2.3 P-35ESect-2.3 P-36ESect-2.3 P-37ESect-2.3 P-38ESect-2.3 P-39ESect-2.3 P-40ESect-2.3 P-41ESect-2.3 P-42ESect-2.3 P-43ESect-2.3 P-44ESect-2.3 P-45ESect-2.3 P-46ESect-2.3 P-47ESect-2.3 P-48ESect-2.3 P-49ESect-2.3 P-50ESect-2.3 P-51ESect-2.3 P-52ESect-2.3 P-53ESect-2.3 P-54ESect-2.3 P-55ESect-2.3 P-56ESect-2.3 P-57ESect-2.3 P-58ESect-2.3 P-59ESect-2.3 P-60ESect-2.3 P-61ESect-2.3 P-62ESect-2.3 P-63ESect-2.3 P-64ESect-2.3 P-65ESect-2.3 P-66ESect-2.3 P-67ESect-2.3 P-68ESect-2.3 P-69ESect-2.3 P-70ESect-2.3 P-71ESect-2.3 P-72ESect-2.3 P-73ESect-2.3 P-74ESect-2.3 P-75ESect-2.3 P-76ESect-2.3 P-77ESect-2.3 P-78ESect-2.3 P-79ESect-2.3 P-80ESect-2.3 P-81ESect-2.3 P-82ESect-2.3 P-83ESect-2.3 P-84ESect-2.3 P-85ESect-2.3 P-86ESect-2.3 P-87ESect-2.3 P-88ESect-2.3 P-89ESect-2.3 P-90ESect-2.3 P-91ESect-2.3 P-92ESect-2.3 P-93ESect-2.3 P-94ESect-2.3 P-95ESect-2.3 P-96ESect-2.3 P-97ESect-2.3 P-98ESect-2.3 P-99ESect-2.3 P-100ESect-2.3 P-101ESect-2.3 P-102ESect-2.3 P-103ESect-2.3 P-104ESect-2.3 P-105ESect-2.3 P-106ESect-2.3 P-107ESect-2.3 P-108ESect-2.3 P-109ESect-2.3 P-110ESect-2.4 P-1ESect-2.4 P-2ESect-2.4 P-3ESect-2.4 P-4ESect-2.4 P-5ESect-2.4 P-6ESect-2.4 P-7ESect-2.4 P-8ESect-2.4 P-9ESect-2.4 P-10ESect-2.4 P-11ESect-2.4 P-12ESect-2.4 P-13ESect-2.4 P-14ESect-2.4 P-15ESect-2.4 P-16ESect-2.4 P-17ESect-2.4 P-18ESect-2.4 P-19ESect-2.4 P-20ESect-2.4 P-21ESect-2.4 P-22ESect-2.4 P-23ESect-2.4 P-24ESect-2.4 P-25ESect-2.4 P-26ESect-2.4 P-27ESect-2.4 P-28ESect-2.4 P-29ESect-2.4 P-30ESect-2.4 P-31ESect-2.4 P-32ESect-2.4 P-33ESect-2.4 P-34ESect-2.4 P-35ESect-2.4 P-36ESect-2.4 P-37ESect-2.4 P-38ESect-2.4 P-39ESect-2.4 P-40ESect-2.4 P-41ESect-2.4 P-42ESect-2.4 P-43ESect-2.4 P-44ESect-2.4 P-45ESect-2.4 P-46ESect-2.4 P-47ESect-2.4 P-48ESect-2.4 P-49ESect-2.4 P-50ESect-2.4 P-51ESect-2.4 P-52ESect-2.4 P-53ESect-2.4 P-54ESect-2.4 P-55ESect-2.4 P-56ESect-2.4 P-57ESect-2.4 P-58ESect-2.5 P-1ESect-2.5 P-2ESect-2.5 P-3ESect-2.5 P-4ESect-2.5 P-5ESect-2.5 P-6ESect-2.5 P-7ESect-2.5 P-8ESect-2.5 P-9ESect-2.5 P-10ESect-2.5 P-11ESect-2.5 P-12ESect-2.5 P-13ESect-2.5 P-14ESect-2.5 P-15ESect-2.5 P-16ESect-2.5 P-17ESect-2.5 P-18ESect-2.5 P-19ESect-2.5 P-20ESect-2.5 P-21ESect-2.5 P-22ESect-2.5 P-23ESect-2.5 P-24ESect-2.5 P-25ESect-2.5 P-26ESect-2.5 P-27ESect-2.5 P-28ESect-2.5 P-29ESect-2.5 P-30ESect-2.5 P-31ESect-2.5 P-32ESect-2.5 P-33ESect-2.5 P-34ESect-2.5 P-35ESect-2.5 P-36ESect-2.5 P-37ESect-2.5 P-38ESect-2.5 P-39ESect-2.5 P-40ESect-2.5 P-41ESect-2.5 P-42ESect-2.5 P-43ESect-2.5 P-44ESect-2.5 P-45ESect-2.5 P-46ESect-2.5 P-47ESect-2.5 P-48ESect-2.5 P-49ESect-2.5 P-50ESect-2.5 P-51ESect-2.5 P-52ESect-2.5 P-53ESect-2.5 P-54ESect-2.5 P-55ESect-2.5 P-56ESect-2.5 P-57ESect-2.5 P-58ESect-2.5 P-59ESect-2.5 P-60ESect-2.5 P-61ESect-2.5 P-62ESect-2.5 P-63ESect-2.5 P-64ESect-2.5 P-65ESect-2.5 P-66ESect-2.5 P-67ESect-2.5 P-68ESect-2.5 P-69ESect-2.5 P-70ESect-2.5 P-71ESect-2.5 P-72ESect-2.5 P-73ESect-2.5 P-74ESect-2.5 P-75ESect-2.5 P-76ESect-2.5 P-77ESect-2.5 P-78ESect-2.5 P-79ESect-2.5 P-80ESect-2.5 P-81ESect-2.5 P-82ESect-2.5 P-83ESect-2.5 P-84ESect-2.5 P-85ESect-2.5 P-86ESect-2.5 P-87ESect-2.5 P-88ESect-2.5 P-89ESect-2.5 P-90ESect-2.6 P-1ESect-2.6 P-2ESect-2.6 P-3ESect-2.6 P-4ESect-2.6 P-5ESect-2.6 P-6ESect-2.6 P-7ESect-2.6 P-8ESect-2.6 P-9ESect-2.6 P-10ESect-2.6 P-11ESect-2.6 P-12ESect-2.6 P-13ESect-2.6 P-14ESect-2.6 P-15ESect-2.6 P-16ESect-2.6 P-17ESect-2.6 P-18ESect-2.6 P-19ESect-2.6 P-20ESect-2.6 P-21ESect-2.6 P-22ESect-2.6 P-23ESect-2.6 P-24ESect-2.6 P-25ESect-2.6 P-26ESect-2.6 P-27ESect-2.6 P-28ESect-2.6 P-29ESect-2.6 P-30ESect-2.6 P-31ESect-2.6 P-32ESect-2.6 P-33ESect-2.6 P-34ESect-2.6 P-35ESect-2.6 P-36ESect-2.6 P-37ESect-2.6 P-38ESect-2.6 P-39ESect-2.6 P-40ESect-2.6 P-41ESect-2.6 P-42ESect-2.6 P-43ESect-2.6 P-44ESect-2.6 P-45ESect-2.6 P-46ESect-2.6 P-47ESect-2.6 P-48ESect-2.6 P-49ESect-2.6 P-50ESect-2.6 P-51ESect-2.6 P-52ESect-2.6 P-53ESect-2.6 P-54ESect-2.6 P-55ESect-2.6 P-56ESect-2.6 P-57ESect-2.6 P-58ESect-2.6 P-59ESect-2.6 P-60ESect-2.6 P-61ESect-2.6 P-62ESect-2.7 P-1ESect-2.7 P-2ESect-2.7 P-3ESect-2.7 P-4ESect-2.7 P-5ESect-2.7 P-6ESect-2.7 P-7ESect-2.7 P-8ESect-2.7 P-9ESect-2.7 P-10ESect-2.7 P-11ESect-2.7 P-12ESect-2.7 P-13ESect-2.7 P-14ESect-2.7 P-15ESect-2.7 P-16ESect-2.7 P-17ESect-2.7 P-18ESect-2.7 P-19ESect-2.7 P-20ESect-2.7 P-21ESect-2.7 P-22ESect-2.7 P-23ESect-2.7 P-24ESect-2.7 P-25ESect-2.7 P-26ESect-2.7 P-27ESect-2.7 P-28ESect-2.7 P-29ESect-2.7 P-30ESect-2.7 P-31ESect-2.7 P-32ESect-2.7 P-33ESect-2.7 P-34ESect-2.7 P-35ESect-2.7 P-36ESect-2.8 P-1ESect-2.8 P-2ESect-2.8 P-3ESect-2.8 P-4ESect-2.8 P-5ESect-2.8 P-6ESect-2.8 P-7ESect-2.8 P-8ESect-2.8 P-9ESect-2.8 P-10ESect-2.8 P-11ESect-2.8 P-12ESect-2.8 P-13ESect-2.8 P-14ESect-2.8 P-15ESect-2.8 P-16ESect-2.8 P-17ESect-2.8 P-18ESect-2.8 P-19ESect-2.8 P-20ESect-2.8 P-21ESect-2.8 P-22ESect-2.8 P-23ESect-2.8 P-24ESect-2.8 P-25ESect-2.8 P-26ESect-2.8 P-27ESect-2.8 P-28ESect-2.8 P-29ESect-2.8 P-30ESect-2.8 P-31ESect-2.8 P-32ESect-2.8 P-33ESect-2.8 P-34ESect-2.8 P-35ESect-2.8 P-36ESect-2.8 P-37ESect-2.8 P-38ESect-2.8 P-39ESect-2.8 P-40ESect-2.8 P-41ESect-2.8 P-42ESect-2.8 P-43ESect-2.8 P-44ESect-2.8 P-45ESect-2.8 P-46ESect-2.8 P-47ESect-2.8 P-48ESect-2.8 P-49ESect-2.8 P-50ESect-2.9 P-1ESect-2.9 P-2ESect-2.9 P-3ESect-2.9 P-4ESect-2.9 P-5ESect-2.9 P-6ESect-2.9 P-7ESect-2.9 P-8ESect-2.9 P-9ESect-2.9 P-10ESect-2.9 P-11ESect-2.9 P-12ESect-2.9 P-13ESect-2.9 P-14ESect-2.9 P-15ESect-2.9 P-16ESect-2.9 P-17ESect-2.9 P-18ESect-2.9 P-19ESect-2.9 P-20ESect-2.9 P-21ESect-2.9 P-22ESect-2.9 P-23ESect-2.9 P-24ESect-2.9 P-25ESect-2.9 P-26ESect-2.9 P-27ESect-2.9 P-28ESect-2.9 P-29ESect-2.9 P-30ESect-2.9 P-31ESect-2.9 P-32ESect-2.9 P-33ESect-2.9 P-34ESect-2.9 P-35ESect-2.9 P-36ESect-2.9 P-37ESect-2.9 P-38ESect-2.9 P-39ESect-2.9 P-40ESect-2.9 P-41ESect-2.9 P-42ESect-2.R P-1CCSect-2.R P-2CCSect-2.R P-3CCSect-2.R P-4CCSect-2.R P-5CCSect-2.R P-6CCSect-2.R P-7CCSect-2.R P-8CCSect-2.R P-9CCSect-2.R P-10CCSect-2.R P-11CCSect-2.R P-12CCSect-2.R P-1TFQSect-2.R P-2TFQSect-2.R P-3TFQSect-2.R P-4TFQSect-2.R P-5TFQSect-2.R P-6TFQSect-2.R P-7TFQSect-2.R P-8TFQSect-2.R P-9TFQSect-2.R P-10TFQSect-2.R P-11TFQSect-2.R P-12TFQSect-2.R P-13TFQSect-2.R P-14TFQSect-2.R P-15TFQSect-2.R P-1ESect-2.R P-2ESect-2.R P-3ESect-2.R P-4ESect-2.R P-5ESect-2.R P-6ESect-2.R P-7ESect-2.R P-8ESect-2.R P-9ESect-2.R P-10ESect-2.R P-11ESect-2.R P-12ESect-2.R P-13ESect-2.R P-14ESect-2.R P-15ESect-2.R P-16ESect-2.R P-17ESect-2.R P-18ESect-2.R P-19ESect-2.R P-20ESect-2.R P-21ESect-2.R P-22ESect-2.R P-23ESect-2.R P-24ESect-2.R P-25ESect-2.R P-26ESect-2.R P-27ESect-2.R P-28ESect-2.R P-29ESect-2.R P-30ESect-2.R P-31ESect-2.R P-32ESect-2.R P-33ESect-2.R P-34ESect-2.R P-35ESect-2.R P-36ESect-2.R P-37ESect-2.R P-38ESect-2.R P-39ESect-2.R P-40ESect-2.R P-41ESect-2.R P-42ESect-2.R P-43ESect-2.R P-44ESect-2.R P-45ESect-2.R P-46ESect-2.R P-47ESect-2.R P-48ESect-2.R P-49ESect-2.R P-50ESect-2.R P-51ESect-2.R P-52ESect-2.R P-53ESect-2.R P-54ESect-2.R P-55ESect-2.R P-56ESect-2.R P-57ESect-2.R P-58ESect-2.R P-59ESect-2.R P-60ESect-2.R P-61ESect-2.R P-62ESect-2.R P-63ESect-2.R P-64ESect-2.R P-65ESect-2.R P-66ESect-2.R P-67ESect-2.R P-68ESect-2.R P-69ESect-2.R P-70ESect-2.R P-71ESect-2.R P-72ESect-2.R P-73ESect-2.R P-74ESect-2.R P-75ESect-2.R P-76ESect-2.R P-77ESect-2.R P-78ESect-2.R P-79ESect-2.R P-80ESect-2.R P-81ESect-2.R P-82ESect-2.R P-83ESect-2.R P-84ESect-2.R P-85ESect-2.R P-86ESect-2.R P-87ESect-2.R P-88ESect-2.R P-89ESect-2.R P-90ESect-2.R P-91ESect-2.R P-92ESect-2.P P-1PSect-2.P P-2PSect-2.P P-3PSect-2.P P-4PSect-2.P P-5PSect-2.P P-6PSect-2.P P-7PSect-2.P P-8PSect-2.P P-9PSect-2.P P-10PSect-2.P P-11PSect-2.P P-12PSect-2.P P-13PSect-2.P P-14PSect-2.P P-15PSect-2.P P-16PSect-2.P P-17PSect-2.P P-18PSect-2.P P-19PSect-2.P P-20PSect-2.P P-21PSect-2.P P-22PSect-2.P P-23PSect-2.P P-24PSect-2.P P-25PSect-2.P P-26PSect-2.P P-27PSect-2.P P-28P

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