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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 3, Problem 143CWP
Textbook Problem
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Arrange the atoms and/or ions in the following groups in order of decreasing size.

a. O, O, O2−

b. Fe2+, NF+, zn2+

c. Ca2+, K+, Cl

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given atoms/ions are to be arranged in the decreasing order of the atomic size.

Concept introduction: The measure of the size of the atoms of an element is known as its atomic size. This is usually taken as the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. The atomic size increases while going down the group and decreases while moving from left to right in a periodic table.

To determine: The correct arrangements of the given species in the decreasing order of size.

Explanation of Solution

An anion is formed by the gain of an electron by the parent atom. This leads to the increase in the size. Hence, an anion is always greater than the parent atom...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given atoms/ions are to be arranged in the decreasing order of the atomic size.

Concept introduction: The measure of the size of the atoms of an element is known as its atomic size. This is usually taken as the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. The atomic size increases while going down the group and decreases while moving from left to right in a periodic table.

To determine: The correct arrangements of the given species in the decreasing order of size.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given atoms/ions are to be arranged in the decreasing order of the atomic size.

Concept introduction: The measure of the size of the atoms of an element is known as its atomic size. This is usually taken as the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. The atomic size increases while going down the group and decreases while moving from left to right in a periodic table.

To determine: The correct arrangements of the given species in the decreasing order of size.

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Chapter 3 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 3 - How would you name HBrO4, KIO3, NaBrO2, and HIO?...Ch. 3 - Explain the electronegativity trends across a row...Ch. 3 - The ionic compound AB is formed. The charges on...Ch. 3 - Using only the periodic table. predict the most...Ch. 3 - The bond energy for a CH bond is about 413 kJ/mol...Ch. 3 - Consider the following statement: Because oxygen...Ch. 3 - Which has the greater bond lengths: NO2 or NO3?...Ch. 3 - The following ions are best described with...Ch. 3 - The second electron affinity values for both...Ch. 3 - What is meant by a chemical bond? Why do atoms...Ch. 3 - Why are some bonds ionic and some covalent?Ch. 3 - How does a bond between Na and Cl differ from a...Ch. 3 - Does a Lewis structure tell which electron come...Ch. 3 - Evaluate each of the following as an acceptable...Ch. 3 - Why do we call Ba(NO3)2 barium nitrate, but we...Ch. 3 - Why is calcium dichloride not the correct...Ch. 3 - The common name for NH3 is ammonia. What would be...Ch. 3 - Compare and contrast the bonding found in the...Ch. 3 - Describe the type of bonding that exists in the...Ch. 3 - Some of the important properties of ionic...Ch. 3 - Label the type of bonding for each of the...Ch. 3 - Distinguish between the following terms. a....Ch. 3 - What is the electronegativity trend? Where does...Ch. 3 - When comparing the size of different ions, the...Ch. 3 - In general the higher the charge on the ions in an...Ch. 3 - Combustion reactions of fossil fuels provide most...Ch. 3 - Which of the following statements is/are true?...Ch. 3 - Three resonance structures can be drawn for CO2...Ch. 3 - By analogy with phosphorus compounds, name the...Ch. 3 - Each of the following compounds has three possible...Ch. 3 - Without using Fig. 3-4, predict the order of...Ch. 3 - Without using Fig. 3-4, predict the order of...Ch. 3 - Without using Fig. 3-4, predict which bond in each...Ch. 3 - Without using Fig. 3-4, predict which bond in each...Ch. 3 - Repeat Exercises 3 1 and 33, this time using the...Ch. 3 - Repeat Exercises 32 and 34, this time using the...Ch. 3 - Which of the following incorrectly shows the bond...Ch. 3 - Indicate the bond polarity (show the partial...Ch. 3 - Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or...Ch. 3 - List all the possible bonds that can occur between...Ch. 3 - Hydrogen has an electronegativity value between...Ch. 3 - Rank the following bonds in order of increasing...Ch. 3 - Would you expect each of the following atoms to...Ch. 3 - For each of the following atomic numbers, use the...Ch. 3 - Write electron configurations for the most stable...Ch. 3 - Write electron configurations for the most stable...Ch. 3 - Predict the empirical formulas of the ionic...Ch. 3 - Predict the empirical formulas of the ionic...Ch. 3 - Write electron configurations for a. the cations...Ch. 3 - Write electron configurations for a. the cations...Ch. 3 - Which of the following ions have noble gas...Ch. 3 - What noble gas has the same electron configuration...Ch. 3 - Give the formula of a negative ion that would have...Ch. 3 - Give an example of an ionic compound where both...Ch. 3 - Give three ions that are isoelectronic with neon....Ch. 3 - Consider the ions Sc3+, Cl, K+, Ca2+, and S2....Ch. 3 - For each of the following groups, place the atoms...Ch. 3 - For each of the following groups, place the atoms...Ch. 3 - Which compound in each of the following pairs of...Ch. 3 - Which compound in each of the following pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use the following data for potassium chloride to...Ch. 3 - Use the following data for magnesium fluoride to...Ch. 3 - Consider the following energy changes: E(kJ/mol)...Ch. 3 - Compare the electron affinity of fluorine to the...Ch. 3 - Consider the following:...Ch. 3 - Use the following data (in kJ/mol) to estimate E...Ch. 3 - Rationalize the following lattice energy values:...Ch. 3 - The lattice energies of FeCl3, FeCl2, and Fe2O3...Ch. 3 - Use bond energy values (Table 3-3) to estimate E...Ch. 3 - Use bond energy values (Table 3-3) to estimate E...Ch. 3 - Use bond energies (Table 3-3) to predict E for the...Ch. 3 - Acetic acid is responsible for the sour taste of...Ch. 3 - Use bond energies to predict E for the following...Ch. 3 - The major industrial source of hydrogen gas is by...Ch. 3 - Use bond energies to estimate E for the combustion...Ch. 3 - Use data from Table 3-3 to determine the energy of...Ch. 3 - Consider the following reaction: Estimate the...Ch. 3 - Consider the following reaction: A2+B22AB E =...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule...Ch. 3 - One type of exception to the octet rule are...Ch. 3 - Lewis structures can be used to understand why...Ch. 3 - The most common exceptions to the octet rule are...Ch. 3 - SF6, CIF5, and XeF4 are three compounds whose...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures for the following. Show all...Ch. 3 - Some of the important pollutants in the atmosphere...Ch. 3 - Benzene (C6H6) consists of a six-membered ring of...Ch. 3 - Borazine (B3N3H6) has often been called inorganic...Ch. 3 - An important observation supporting the concept of...Ch. 3 - Consider the following bond lengths: CO143pmC9O123...Ch. 3 - A toxic cloud covered Bhopal, India, in December...Ch. 3 - Peroxyacetyl nitrate, or PAN, is present in...Ch. 3 - Order the following species with respect to...Ch. 3 - Place the species below in order of the shortest...Ch. 3 - Use the formal charge arguments to rationalize why...Ch. 3 - Use formal charge arguments to explain why CO has...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise...Ch. 3 - A common trait of simple organic compounds is to...Ch. 3 - Benzoic acid is a food preservative. The...Ch. 3 - Oxidation of the cyanide ion produces the stable...Ch. 3 - Nitrous oxide (N2O) has three possible Lewis...Ch. 3 - Name the compounds in parts ad and write the...Ch. 3 - Name the compounds in parts ad and write the...Ch. 3 - Name each of the following compounds: a. CsF b....Ch. 3 - Write the formula for each of the following...Ch. 3 - Name each of the following compounds: a. BaSO3 b....Ch. 3 - Write the formula for each of the following...Ch. 3 - Name each of the following compounds: a. b. c. SO2...Ch. 3 - Write the formula for each of the following...Ch. 3 - Name each of the following compounds: a. CuI b....Ch. 3 - Name each of the following compounds. Assume the...Ch. 3 - Elements in the same family often form oxyanions...Ch. 3 - Knowing the names of similar chlorine oxyanions...Ch. 3 - Write the formula for each of the following...Ch. 3 - Write the formula for each of the following...Ch. 3 - Write the formula for each of the following...Ch. 3 - Write the formula for each of the following...Ch. 3 - Name the acids illustrated below. a. b. c. d. e.Ch. 3 - Each of the following compounds is incorrectly...Ch. 3 - Arrange the following in order of increasing...Ch. 3 - For each of the following, write an equation that...Ch. 3 - Use bond energies (table 3-3), values of electron...Ch. 3 - Write Lewis structures for CO32, HCO3, and H2CO3....Ch. 3 - Which member of the following pairs would you...Ch. 3 - What do each of the following sets of...Ch. 3 - Although both Br3 and I3 ions are known, the F3...Ch. 3 - Look up the energies for the bonds in CO and N2....Ch. 3 - The formulas and common names for several...Ch. 3 - Identify each of the following elements: a. a...Ch. 3 - A certain element has only two naturally occurring...Ch. 3 - The designations I A through SA used for certain...Ch. 3 - When molten sulfur reacts with chlorine gas, a...Ch. 3 - The study of carbon-containing compounds and their...Ch. 3 - What are the formulas of the compounds that...Ch. 3 - What are the names of the compounds that...Ch. 3 - Complete the following table to predict whether...Ch. 3 - Which of the following statements is( are)...Ch. 3 - Classify the bonding in each of the following...Ch. 3 - List the bonds PCl, PF, OF, and SiF from least...Ch. 3 - Arrange the atoms and/or ions in the following...Ch. 3 - Use the following data to estimate E for the...Ch. 3 - Use bond energy values to estimate E for the...Ch. 3 - Which of the following compounds or ions exhibit...Ch. 3 - Use Coulombs Jaw, V=Q1Q240r=2.311019Jnm(Q1Q2r) to...Ch. 3 - An alternative definition of electronegativity is...Ch. 3 - Given the following information: Energy of...Ch. 3 - Think of forming an ionic compound as three steps...Ch. 3 - Use data in this chapter (and Chapter 2) to...Ch. 3 - Three processes that have been used for the...Ch. 3 - The compound hexaazaisowurtzitane is one of the...Ch. 3 - Many times extra stability is characteristic of a...Ch. 3 - Draw a Lewis structure for the N,...Ch. 3 - Cholesterol (C27H46O) has the following structure:...Ch. 3 - Consider the following computer-generated model of...Ch. 3 - For each of the following ions, indicate the total...Ch. 3 - Identify the following elements based on their...Ch. 3 - A polyatomic ion is composed of C, N, and an...

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