   # Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following: a . 23 Na + b . 81 Br - c . 16 O 2- ### Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section ### Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 3, Problem 25E
Textbook Problem
11 views

## Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following: a . 23 Na + b . 81 Br - c . 16 O 2-

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The protons, neutrons, and electrons for each of the given element are to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

An atom consists of a nucleus and extranuclear space.

Atoms of an element can exist in more than one form. Each form is termed as an isotope and only the number of neutrons is different in each form while the number of protons and electrons is the same.

When an atom loses or gains an electron, it is termed as cation or anion, respectively. Cation bears a positive charge and contains more protons than electrons in it. Anion bears a negative charge contains fewer protons than electrons in it.

The number of electrons of an ion is calculated by subtracting the charge from the atomic number.

Atomic number (Z) of an atom as well as an ion is equal to the number of protons, whereas mass number (A) is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons. Atomic number is written as subscript and mass number is written as a superscript.

The number of neutrons in an atom can be calculated by subtracting the atomic number from its mass number.

### Explanation of Solution

a) 23Na+

The protons, neutrons, and electrons are calculated as follows:

Atomic number of sodium = 11So, number of protons = 11

Therefore, the number of protons is 11

Charge = +1 (given)Number of electrons = number of protons - charge                                 = 11 - 1= 10

Therefore, the number of electrons is 10.

Mass number of Na = 23Number of neutrons = Mass number - Atomic number                                = 23 - 11=12

Hence, the number of neutrons is 12.

b) 81Br-

The calculation of protons, neutrons, and electrons is done as follows:

Atomic number of bromine = 35So, number of protons = 35

Thus, the number of protons is 35

Charge = -1 (given)Number of electrons = number of protons - charge

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