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We have seen that the reactivity of an element is determined by its electron configuration. What is the electron configuration of the ion Cl - ? (Hint: You must add one additional electron beyond the number of electrons that chlorine would normally have.) How does its reactivity compare with neutral Cl? How would the reactivities of Na and Na + compare?

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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 3, Problem 35E
Textbook Problem
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We have seen that the reactivity of an element is determined by its electron configuration. What is the electron configuration of the ion Cl - ?

(Hint: You must add one additional electron beyond the number of electrons that chlorine would normally have.) How does its reactivity compare with neutral Cl? How would the reactivities of Na and Na + compare?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configurations of Cl and Na+ are to be determined and reactivity of these ions with their neutral atoms Cl and Na respectively are to be compared.

Concept Introduction:

As per Bohr’s model of the atom, electrons are arranged in orbits. Orbits are circular paths that electrons revolve in, around the nucleus. There can be a maximum of two electrons in the first orbit; eight electrons in the second orbit and third orbit while eighteen in the fourth orbit.

The arrangement of electrons in orbits is termed as the electronic configuration. Atoms in which the orbits are completely filled are the least chemically reactive while those in which orbits are incomplete are chemically reactive.

The electrons present in the outer most orbit in the electronic configuration are called valence electrons and that orbit is termed as the valence orbit.

Reactive elements which are short of or exceed completely filled valence orbits by a maximum of three electrons tend to gain or lose therequired number of electrons. This converts those atoms into ions. These ions are comparatively less reactive than their parent atom.

The atoms which gain the electrons get negatively charged and are termed as anions while those which lose electrons get positively charged and are termed as cations. The electrons are lost or gained in the valence orbit only.

Explanation of Solution

Cl contains 17 electrons. Its electronic configuration is 2, 8, 7. It has seven valence electrons and is short by just one electron to get the completely filled valence orbit. So, on gaining one electron, the valence orbit will have eight electrons. On gaining one electron, Cl is formed. Its electronic configuration is 2, 8, 8. It has a completely filled valence shell. So, it is less reactive than Cl

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