The possible values of l and ml for n = 2 quantum level should be identified using the concept of quantum numbers.
Quantum numbers are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom. The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.
Principal Quantum Number (n)
The principal quantum number (n) assigns the size of the orbital and specifies the energy of an electron. If the value of n is larger, then the average distance of an electron in the orbital from the nucleus will be greater. Therefore the size of the orbital is large. The principal quantum numbers have the integral values of 1, 2, 3 and so forth and it corresponds to the quantum number in Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom. If all orbitals have the same value of ‘n’, they are said to be in the same shell (level). The total number of orbitals for a given n value is n2. As the value of ‘n’ increases, the energy of the electron also increases.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)
The angular momentum quantum number (l) explains the shape of the atomic orbital. The values of l are integers which depend on the value of the principal quantum number, n. For a given value of n, the possible values of l range are from 0 to n − 1. If n = 1, there is only one possible value of l (l=0). If n = 2, there are two values of l: 0 and 1. If n = 3, there are three values of l: 0, 1, and 2. The value of l is selected by the letters s, p, d, and f. If l = 0, we have an s orbital; if l = 1, we have a p orbital; if l = 2, we have a d orbital and finally if l = 3, we have a f orbital. A collection of orbitals with the same value of n is called a shell. One or more orbitals with the same n and l values are referred to a subshell (sublevel). The value of l also has a slight effect on the energy of the subshell; the energy of the subshell increases with l (s < p < d < f).
Magnetic Quantum Number (ml)
The magnetic quantum number (ml) explains the orientation of the orbital in space. The value of ml depends on the value of l in a subshell. This number divides the subshell into individual orbitals which hold the electrons. For a certain value of l, there are (2l + 1) integral values of ml which is explained as follows:
ml = ‒ l, ..., 0, ..., +l
If l = 0, there is only one possible value of ml: 0.
If l = 1, then there are three values of ml: −1, 0, and +1.
If l = 2, there are five values of ml, namely, −2, −1, 0, +1, and +2.
If l = 3, there are seven values of ml, namely, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, and +3, and so on.
The number of ml values indicates the number of orbitals in a subshell with a particular l value. Therefore, each ml value refers to a different orbital.
To find: Get the possible values of l and ml for n = 2 quantum level
The possible values of ml for n = 2 quantum levels are given as shown below:
If l = 0, there is only one possible value of ml: 0 for n = 2.
If l = 1, then there are three values of ml: −1, 0, and +1 for n = 2.
Find the value of ‘l’ for n = 2