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4th Edition

Richard N. Aufmann + 3 others

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781305965584

Chapter 3, Problem 85RE

Textbook Problem

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Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid by comparing its symbolic form with the symbolic forms in Tables 3.15 and 3.16, pages 145 and 146.

If we wish to win the lottery, we must buy a lottery ticket. We did not win the lottery. Therefore, we did not buy a lottery ticket.

To determine

**To identify:**

Whether the given argument is valid or invalid by comparing its symbolic form with the standard forms given in Tables 3.15 and 3.16 and for each valid argument, state the name of its standard form.

**Given information:**

If we wish to win the lottery, we must buy a lottery ticket. We did not win the lottery. Therefore, we did not buy a lottery ticket.

**Concept Involved:**

__An Argument and a Valid Argument__: An argument consists of a set of statements called premises and another statement called the conclusion. An argument is valid if the conclusion is true whenever all the premises are assumed to be true. An argument is invalid if it is not a valid argument. A symbolic argument consists of a set of premises and a conclusion. It is called a symbolic argument because we generally write it in symbolic form to determine its validity.

A disjunction is a compound statement formed by joining two statements with the connector OR. The disjunction "p or q" is symbolized by |

A conjunction is a compound statement formed by joining two statements with the connector AND. The conjunction "p and q" is symbolized by |

A conditional statement, symbolized by |

A biconditional statement is defined to be true whenever both parts have the same truth value. The biconditional operator is denoted by a double-headed arrow |

__Standard Forms:__

Arguments can be show to be valid if they have the same symbolic form as an argument that is known to be valid.

Table 3.15 shows four symbolic forms and the name used to identify each form. Any argument that has a symbolic form identical to one of these symbolic forms is a valid argument.

Table 3.15 Standard Forms of Four Valid Arguments | ||||

Direct Reasoning | Contrapositive Reasoning | Transitive Reasoning | Disjunctive Reasoning | |

| | | | |

Table 3.16 shows to two symbolic forms associated with invalid arguments. Any argument that has one of these symbolic forms is invalid.

Disjunctive Standard Forms of TWO Invalid Arguments | |

Fallacy of the converse | Fallacy of the inverse |

| |

**Calculation:**

In the argument given, the two premises and the conclusion are shown below

Mathematical Excursions (MindTap Course List)

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Ch. 3.1 - Write a symbolic statement to represent each of...Ch. 3.1 - Write a symbolic statement to represent each of...Ch. 3.1 - Write a symbolic statement to represent each of...Ch. 3.1 - Write a symbolic statement to represent each of...Ch. 3.1 - Write a symbolic statement to represent each of...Ch. 3.1 - Write a symbolic statement to represent each of...Ch. 3.1 - Which of the networks in Excursion Exercises 1 to...Ch. 3.1 - Which of the networks in Excursion Exercises I to...Ch. 3.1 - Draw a network to represent each statement....Ch. 3.1 - Draw a network to represent each statement. P[...

Ch. 3.1 - Draw a network to represent each statement. [ PQR...Ch. 3.1 - Draw a network to represent each statement....Ch. 3.1 - Draw a network to represent each statement. [...Ch. 3.1 - Draw a network to represent each statement....Ch. 3.1 - Warning Circuits The circuits shown in Excursion...Ch. 3.1 - Warning Circuits The circuits shown in Excursion...Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement. 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Represent...Ch. 3.1 - Wite each sentence in symbolic form. Represent...Ch. 3.1 - Wite each sentence in symbolic form. Represent...Ch. 3.1 - Wite each sentence in symbolic form. Represent...Ch. 3.1 - Wite each sentence in symbolic form. Represent...Ch. 3.1 - Write each symbolic statement in words. Use p, q,...Ch. 3.1 - Write each symbolic statement in words. Use p, q,...Ch. 3.1 - Write each symbolic statement in words. Use p, q,...Ch. 3.1 - Write each symbolic statement in words. Use p, q,...Ch. 3.1 - Write each symbolic statement in words. Use p, q,...Ch. 3.1 - Write each symbolic statement in words. 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Use p, q, r,...Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write the negation of each quantified statement....Ch. 3.1 - Write Quotations in Symbolic Form In Exercises 61...Ch. 3.1 - Write Quotations in Symbolic Form In Exercises 61...Ch. 3.1 - Write Quotations in Symbolic Form In Exercises 61...Ch. 3.1 - Write Quotations in Symbolic Form In Exercises 61...Ch. 3.1 - Write Statements in Symbolic Form In Exercises 65...Ch. 3.1 - Write Statements in Symbolic Form In Exercises 65...Ch. 3.1 - Write Statements in Symbolic Form In Exercises 65...Ch. 3.1 - Write Statements in Symbolic Form In Exercises 65...Ch. 3.1 - Write Statements in Symbolic Form In Exercises 65...Ch. 3.1 - Write Statements in Symbolic Form In Exercises 65...Ch. 3.1 - Recreational Logic The following diagram shows two...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a closure (able for each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a closure (able for each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a closure (able for each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a closure (able for each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a closure (able for each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a closure (able for each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Warning Circuits a. The following circuit shows a...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - Determine the truth value of the compound...Ch. 3.2 - a. Given that p is a false statement. what can be...Ch. 3.2 - 12. a. Given that q is a true statement, what can...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Construct a truth table for each compound...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Use two truth tables to show that each of the...Ch. 3.2 - Make use of one of De Morgans laws to write the...Ch. 3.2 - Make use of one of De Morgans laws to write the...Ch. 3.2 - Make use of one of De Morgans laws to write the...Ch. 3.2 - Make use of one of De Morgans laws to write the...Ch. 3.2 - Make use of one of De Morgans laws to write the...Ch. 3.2 - Make use of one of De Morgans laws to write the...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3.2 - Explain why the statement 78 is a disjunction.Ch. 3.2 - a. 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[...Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement. [...Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement....Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement. [...Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement. [...Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement. [...Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement. {...Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement. [...Ch. 3.3 - Construct a truth table for the given Statement. 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If it...Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3.4 - Determine whether the given statements are...Ch. 3.4 - Determine whether the given statements are...Ch. 3.4 - Determine whether the given statements are...Ch. 3.4 - Determine whether the given statements are...Ch. 3.4 - Determine whether the given statements are...Ch. 3.4 - 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A Puzzle Lewis Carroll (Charles Dodgson) wrote...Ch. 3.4 - Recreational Logic Consider a checkerboard with...Ch. 3.5 - Write an argument that is an example of circulus...Ch. 3.5 - Give an example of an argument that is a fallacy...Ch. 3.5 - Write an argument that is an example of a fallacy...Ch. 3.5 - Write an argument that is an example of a fallacy...Ch. 3.5 - Algebraic arguments often consist of a list of...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write each argument...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3.5 - Use a sequence of valid arguments to show that...Ch. 3.5 - Use a sequence of valid arguments to show that...Ch. 3.5 - Use a sequence of valid arguments to show that...Ch. 3.5 - Use a sequence of valid arguments to show that...Ch. 3.5 - Use a sequence of valid arguments to show that...Ch. 3.5 - 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Assume that no...Ch. 3.6 - Solve the following cryptarithms. Assume that no...Ch. 3.6 - Solve the following cryptarithms. Assume that no...Ch. 3.6 - Solve the following cryptarithms. Assume that no...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3.6 - Use all of the premises in each argument to...Ch. 3.6 - Use all of the premises in each argument to...Ch. 3.6 - Use all of the premises in each argument to...Ch. 3.6 - Use all of the premises in each argument to...Ch. 3.6 - Use all of the premises in each argument to...Ch. 3.6 - Use all of the premises in each argument to...Ch. 3.6 - Examine the following three premises: 1. 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[...Ch. 3 - Construct a truth table for the given statement....Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. Every...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. Being...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. I could...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. Being...Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - What is the inverse of the contrapositive of pq?Ch. 3 - Use the contrapositive of the following statement...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement. a....Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each statement. Start each...Ch. 3 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3 - Determine the truth value of each statement given...Ch. 3 - Construct a truth table for the given statement....Ch. 3 - Construct a truth table for the given statement....Ch. 3 - Use one of De Morgans laws to write the following...Ch. 3 - What is a tautology?Ch. 3 - Write pq in its equivalent disjunctive form.Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - 12. Write the symbolic form of direct reasoning.Ch. 3 - Write the symbolic form of transitive reasoning.Ch. 3 - Write the symbolic form of contrapositive...Ch. 3 - 15. Write the symbolic form of the fallacy of the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...

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