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4th Edition

Richard N. Aufmann + 3 others

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781305965584

Chapter 3, Problem 87RE

Textbook Problem

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Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid by comparing its symbolic form with the symbolic forms in Tables 3.15 and 3.16, pages 145 and 146.

If we are going to have a caesar salad, then we need to buy some eggs. We did not buy eggs. Therefore, we are not going to have a caesar salad.

To determine

**To identify:**

Whether the given argument is valid or invalid by comparing its symbolic form with the standard forms given in Tables 3.15 and 3.16 and for each valid argument, state the name of its standard form.

**Given information:**

If we are going to have a Caesar salad, then we need to buy some eggs. We did not buy eggs. Therefore, we are not going to have a Caesar salad.

**Concept Involved:**

__An Argument and a Valid Argument__: An argument consists of a set of statements called premises and another statement called the conclusion. An argument is valid if the conclusion is true whenever all the premises are assumed to be true. An argument is invalid if it is not a valid argument. A symbolic argument consists of a set of premises and a conclusion. It is called a symbolic argument because we generally write it in symbolic form to determine its validity.

A disjunction is a compound statement formed by joining two statements with the connector OR. The disjunction "p or q" is symbolized by |

A conjunction is a compound statement formed by joining two statements with the connector AND. The conjunction "p and q" is symbolized by |

A conditional statement, symbolized by |

A biconditional statement is defined to be true whenever both parts have the same truth value. The biconditional operator is denoted by a double-headed arrow |

__Standard Forms:__

Arguments can be show to be valid if they have the same symbolic form as an argument that is known to be valid.

Table 3.15 shows four symbolic forms and the name used to identify each form. Any argument that has a symbolic form identical to one of these symbolic forms is a valid argument.

Table 3.15 Standard Forms of Four Valid Arguments | ||||

Direct Reasoning | Contrapositive Reasoning | Transitive Reasoning | Disjunctive Reasoning | |

| | | | |

Table 3.16 shows to two symbolic forms associated with invalid arguments. Any argument that has one of these symbolic forms is invalid.

Table 3.16 Standard Forms of TWO Invalid Arguments | |

Fallacy of the converse | Fallacy of the inverse |

| |

**Calculation:**

In the argument given, the two premises and the conclusion are shown below

Mathematical Excursions (MindTap Course List)

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Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - Use the indicated letters to write the argument in...Ch. 3.5 - 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[...Ch. 3 - Construct a truth table for the given statement....Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Make use of Dc Morgans laws to write the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to show that the given pairs of...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the given...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Identify the antecedent and the consequent of each...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write each conditional statement in its equivalent...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each conditional statement...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. Every...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. Being...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. I could...Ch. 3 - Write each statement in If p, then q form. Being...Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - What is the inverse of the contrapositive of pq?Ch. 3 - Use the contrapositive of the following statement...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Determine the original statement if the given...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use an Euler diagram to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Determine whether each sentence is a statement. a....Ch. 3 - Write the negation of each statement. Start each...Ch. 3 - Determine whether each statement is true or false....Ch. 3 - Determine the truth value of each statement given...Ch. 3 - Construct a truth table for the given statement....Ch. 3 - Construct a truth table for the given statement....Ch. 3 - Use one of De Morgans laws to write the following...Ch. 3 - What is a tautology?Ch. 3 - Write pq in its equivalent disjunctive form.Ch. 3 - Determine whether the given statement is true or...Ch. 3 - Write the a. converse, b. inverse, and c....Ch. 3 - 12. Write the symbolic form of direct reasoning.Ch. 3 - Write the symbolic form of transitive reasoning.Ch. 3 - Write the symbolic form of contrapositive...Ch. 3 - 15. Write the symbolic form of the fallacy of the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Use a truth table to determine whether the...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...Ch. 3 - Determine whether the argument is valid or...

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