Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759


Chapter 31, Problem 31.66P
Textbook Problem

(Chemical Connections 31B) What do we mean the term ‘‘indiscriminate use of antibiotics”?

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction


The meaning of indiscriminate application of antibiotics should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Antibiotics refer to the components obtained from microbes to eradicate other microorganisms. For example, streptomycin and penicillin are antibiotics, and these are used in the treatment of various kinds of bacterial infections. One usual demerit of antibiotics application is that the individuals seem to develop certain kinds of allergies.

Explanation of Solution

An antibiotic refers to a kind of drug, which exhibits a direct influence on the desired target molecule when get discharged in the blood. The antibiotics are generated to treat bacterial causing diseases. Therefore, antibiotics are antibacterial. Each antibiotic is unique towards bacterial infection. Hence, the antibiotics should only be used when the exact cause of the disease is known...

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Chapter 31 Solutions

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
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Ch. 31 - What kind of antigen does a T cell recognize?Ch. 31 - What is the smallest unit of an antigen that is...Ch. 31 - How does the body process antigens to be...Ch. 31 - What role do MHC molecules play in the immune...Ch. 31 - To which class of compounds do MHCs belong? Where...Ch. 31 - What is the difference in function between class I...Ch. 31 - When a foreign substance is injected in a rabbit,...Ch. 31 - Distinguish among the roles of the IgA, IgE, and...Ch. 31 - (a) Which immunoglobulin has the highest...Ch. 31 - Chemical Connections 20D states that the antigen...Ch. 31 - In the immunoglobulin structure, the “hinge...Ch. 31 - How are the light and heavy chains of an antibody...Ch. 31 - What do we mean by the term immunoglobulin...Ch. 31 - If you could isolate two monoclonal antibodies...Ch. 31 - What kind of interaction takes place between an...Ch. 31 - How is a new protein created on the variable...Ch. 31 - What accounts for antibody diversity?Ch. 31 - T-cell receptor molecules are made of two...Ch. 31 - What is the difference between a T-cell receptor...Ch. 31 - What kind of tertiary structure characterizes the...Ch. 31 - What are the components of the TcR complex?Ch. 31 - By what chemical process does CD3 transduct...Ch. 31 - Which adhesion molecule in the TcR complex helps...Ch. 31 - Three kinds of molecules in the T cell belong to...Ch. 31 - What functions do CD4 and CD8 serve in the immune...Ch. 31 - In what way can antibodies increase their...Ch. 31 - What made Edward Jenner “the father of immuniza...Ch. 31 - What observation led Edward Jenner to attempt his...Ch. 31 - What is the derivation of the word “vaccination”?Ch. 31 - 31-40 What are the three main types of vaccines?Ch. 31 - Of the vaccine types listed for the answer to...Ch. 31 - Which cell types of the immune system are involved...Ch. 31 - What is the importance of dendritic cells to...Ch. 31 - 31-44 What are some diseases that have been...Ch. 31 - How does the body prevent T cells from being...Ch. 31 - What makes a tumor cell different from a normal...Ch. 31 - Name a signaling pathway that controls the...Ch. 31 - How does the inhibitory receptor on a macrophage...Ch. 31 - Which components of the immune system are...Ch. 31 - How do glucocorticoids make individuals with...Ch. 31 - 31-51 Which cells are attacked by HIV?Ch. 31 - How does HIV gain entry into the cells it attacks?Ch. 31 - How does HIV confound the human immune system?Ch. 31 - What types of therapy are used to fight AIDS?Ch. 31 - Why have vaccines been relatively unsuccessful in...Ch. 31 - What are the structural features of the two types...Ch. 31 - How is the development of “two-in-one” antibodies...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31A) What is contributing to...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31A) Why are monoclonal...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31A) Explain a situation in...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31A) What type of evidence...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31A) How are monoclonal...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31A) What do tyrosine...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31B) What happens when a...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 3IB) Why are allergies to...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31B) What do we mean the...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31B) Why has the sexually...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31B) What are the downsides...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31B) Why can strep throat be...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31C) What is the...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31C) Describe the positive...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31C) Explain why some...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31D) Why can the flu be...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31D) What are the two major...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31D) Is it a correct...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31D) How can flu viruses...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31E) What is special about...Ch. 31 - (Chemical Connections 31E) How did the studies on...Ch. 31 - Which immunoglobulins form the first line of...Ch. 31 - Which cells of the innate immunity system are the...Ch. 31 - Which compound or complex of compounds of the...Ch. 31 - Name a process beside V(J)D recombination that can...Ch. 31 - Name a tumor cell marker, a synthetic analog of...Ch. 31 - Is the light chain of an immunoglobulin the same...Ch. 31 - Where are TNF receptors located?Ch. 31 - 31-86 The variable regions of immunoglobulins bind...

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