Math

StatisticsProbability and Statistics for Engineering and the SciencesSuppose that you read through this year’s issues of the New York Times and record each number that appears in a news article-the income of a CEO. the number of cases of wine produced by a winery, the total charitable contribution of a politician during the previous tax year, the age of a celebrity, and so on. Now focus on the leading digit of each number, which could be 1.2 8. or 9. Your first thought might be that the leading digit X of a randomly selected number would be equally likely to be one of the nine possibilities (a discrete uniform distribution). However, much empirical evidence as well as some theoretical arguments suggest an alternative probability distribution called Benford’s law : p ( x ) = P (1st digit is x ) = log 10 ( x + 1 x ) x = 1, 2, ... , 9 a. Without computing individual probabilities from this formula, show that it specifies a legitimate pmf. Now compute the individual probabilities and compare to the corresponding discrete uniform distribution. b. Obtain the cdf of X . c. Using the cdf, what is the probability that the leading digit is at most 3? At least 5? [ Note: Benford’s law is the basis for some auditing procedures used to detect fraud in financial reporting—for example, by the Internal Revenue Service.]BuyFind*launch*

9th Edition

Jay L. Devore

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781305251809

Chapter 3.2, Problem 21E

Textbook Problem

Suppose that you read through this year’s issues of the *New York Times* and record each number that appears in a news article-the income of a CEO. the number of cases of wine produced by a winery, the total charitable contribution of a politician during the previous tax year, the age of a celebrity, and so on. Now focus on the leading digit of each number, which could be 1.2 8. or 9.

Your first thought might be that the leading digit X of a randomly selected number would be equally likely to be one of the nine possibilities (a discrete uniform distribution). However, much empirical evidence as well as some theoretical arguments suggest an alternative probability distribution called *Benford’s law*:

**a.**Without computing individual probabilities from this formula, show that it specifies a legitimate pmf. Now compute the individual probabilities and compare to the corresponding discrete uniform distribution.**b.**Obtain the cdf of*X*.**c.**Using the cdf, what is the probability that the leading digit is at most 3? At least 5? [*Note:*Benford’s law is the basis for some auditing procedures used to detect fraud in financial reporting—for example, by the Internal Revenue Service.]

Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences

Ch. 3.1 - A concrete beam may fail either by shear (S) or...Ch. 3.1 - Using the experiment in Example 3.3, define two...Ch. 3.1 - Let X = the number of nonzero digits in a randomly...Ch. 3.1 - If the sample space S is an infinite set, does...Ch. 3.1 - Starting at a fixed time, each car entering an...Ch. 3.1 - For each random variable defined here, describe...Ch. 3.1 - Each time a component is tested, the trial is a...Ch. 3.1 - An individual named Claudius is located at the...Ch. 3.1 - The number of pumps in use at both a six-pump...Ch. 3.2 - Let X be the number of students who show up for a...

Ch. 3.2 - Airlines sometimes overbook flights. Suppose that...Ch. 3.2 - A mail-order computer business has six telephone...Ch. 3.2 - A contractor is required by a county planning...Ch. 3.2 - Many manufacturers have quality control programs...Ch. 3.2 - Some parts of California are particularly...Ch. 3.2 - A now batterys voltage may be acceptable (A) or...Ch. 3.2 - Two fair six-sided dice are tossed independently....Ch. 3.2 - A library subscribes to two different weekly news...Ch. 3.2 - Three couples and two single individuals have been...Ch. 3.2 - Suppose that you read through this years issues of...Ch. 3.2 - Refer to Exercise 13, and calculate and graph the...Ch. 3.2 - A branch of a certain bank in New York City has...Ch. 3.2 - An insurance company offers its policyholders a...Ch. 3.2 - In Example 3.12, let Y = the number of girls born...Ch. 3.2 - Alvie Singer lives at 0 in the accompanying...Ch. 3.2 - After all students have left the classroom, a...Ch. 3.2 - Show that the cdf F(x) is a nondecreasing...Ch. 3.3 - The pmf of the amount of memory X(GB) in a...Ch. 3.3 - An individual who has automobile insurance from a...Ch. 3.3 - Refer to Exercise 12 and calculate V(Y) and Y....Ch. 3.3 - A certain brand of upright freezer is available in...Ch. 3.3 - Let X be a Bernoulli rv with pmf as in Example...Ch. 3.3 - Suppose that the number of plants of a particular...Ch. 3.3 - A small market orders copies of a certain magazine...Ch. 3.3 - Let X be the damage incurred (in ) in a certain...Ch. 3.3 - The n candidates for a job have been ranked 1, 2,...Ch. 3.3 - Possible values of X, the number of components in...Ch. 3.3 - A chemical supply company currently has in stock...Ch. 3.3 - a. Draw a line graph of the pmf of X in Exercise...Ch. 3.3 - Use the definition in Expression (3.13) to prove...Ch. 3.3 - Suppose E(X) = 5 and E[X(X - 1)] = 27.5. What is...Ch. 3.3 - Write a general rule for E(X c) where c is a...Ch. 3.3 - A result called Chebyshevs inequality states that...Ch. 3.3 - If a X b, show that a E(X) b.Ch. 3.4 - Compute the following binomial probabilities...Ch. 3.4 - The article Should You Report That Fender-Bender?...Ch. 3.4 - NBC News reported on May 2. 2013. that 1 in 20...Ch. 3.4 - A company that produces fine crystal knows from...Ch. 3.4 - A particular telephone number is used to receive...Ch. 3.4 - Refer to the previous exercise. a. What is the...Ch. 3.4 - Suppose that 30% of all students who have to buy a...Ch. 3.4 - Exercise 30 (Section 3.3) gave the pmf of Y, the...Ch. 3.4 - A particular type of tennis racket comes in a...Ch. 3.4 - Twenty percent of all telephones of a certain type...Ch. 3.4 - The College Board reports that 2% of the 2 million...Ch. 3.4 - A certain type of flashlight requires two type-D...Ch. 3.4 - A very large batch of components has arrived at a...Ch. 3.4 - An ordinance requiring that a smoke detector be...Ch. 3.4 - A toll bridge charges 1.00 for passenger cars and...Ch. 3.4 - A student who is trying to write a paper for a...Ch. 3.4 - a. For fixed n, are there values of p(0 p 1) for...Ch. 3.4 - a. Show that b(x; n, 1 p) = b(n x; n, p). b....Ch. 3.4 - Show that E(X) = np when X is a binomial random...Ch. 3.4 - Customers at a gas station pay with a credit card...Ch. 3.4 - An airport limousine can accommodate up to four...Ch. 3.4 - Refer to Chebyshevs inequality given in Exercise...Ch. 3.5 - Eighteen individuals are scheduled to take a...Ch. 3.5 - Each of 12 refrigerators of a certain type has...Ch. 3.5 - An instructor who taught two sections of...Ch. 3.5 - A geologist has collected 10 specimens of basaltic...Ch. 3.5 - A personnel director interviewing 11 senior...Ch. 3.5 - Twenty pairs of individuals playing in a bridge...Ch. 3.5 - A second-stage smog alert has been called in a...Ch. 3.5 - The probability that a randomly selected box of a...Ch. 3.5 - A family decides to have children until it has...Ch. 3.5 - Three brothers and their wives decide to have...Ch. 3.5 - According to the article Characterizing the...Ch. 3.6 - The article Expectation Analysis of the...Ch. 3.6 - Let X be the number of material anomalies...Ch. 3.6 - Suppose that the number of drivers who travel...Ch. 3.6 - Consider writing onto a computer disk and then...Ch. 3.6 - An article in the Los Angeles Times (Dec. 3. 1993)...Ch. 3.6 - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Ch. 3.6 - Suppose small aircraft arrive at a certain airport...Ch. 3.6 - Organisms are present in ballast water discharged...Ch. 3.6 - The number of requests for assistance received by...Ch. 3.6 - In proof testing of circuit boards, the...Ch. 3.6 - The article Reliability-Based Service-Life...Ch. 3.6 - Let X have a Poisson distribution with parameter ....Ch. 3.6 - Suppose that trees are distributed in a forest...Ch. 3.6 - Automobiles arrive at a vehicle equipment...Ch. 3.6 - a. In a Poisson process, what has to happen in...Ch. 3 - Consider a deck consisting of seven cards, marked...Ch. 3 - After shuffling a deck of 52 cards, a dealer deals...Ch. 3 - The negative binomial rv X was defined as the...Ch. 3 - Of all customers purchasing automatic garage-door...Ch. 3 - In some applications the distribution of a...Ch. 3 - A k-out-of-n system is one that will function if...Ch. 3 - A manufacturer of integrated circuit chips wishes...Ch. 3 - Of the people passing through an airport metal...Ch. 3 - An educational consulting firm is trying to decide...Ch. 3 - Consider a disease whose presence can be...Ch. 3 - Let p1 denote the probability that any particular...Ch. 3 - The purchaser of a power-generating unit requires...Ch. 3 - A plan for an executive travelers club has been...Ch. 3 - Forty percent of seeds from maize (modern-day com)...Ch. 3 - A trial has just resulted in a hung jury because...Ch. 3 - A reservation service employs five information...Ch. 3 - Grasshoppers arc distributed at random in a large...Ch. 3 - A newsstand has ordered five copies of a certain...Ch. 3 - Individuals A and B begin to play a sequence of...Ch. 3 - A test for the presence of a certain disease has...Ch. 3 - The generalized negative binomial pmf is given by...Ch. 3 - There are two Certified Public Accountants in a...Ch. 3 - The mode of a discrete random variable X with pmf...Ch. 3 - A computer disk storage device has ten concentric...Ch. 3 - If X is a hypergeometric rv, show directly from...Ch. 3 - Use the fact that allx(x-)2p(x)x:x-k(x-)2p(x) to...Ch. 3 - The simple Poisson process of Section 3.6 is...Ch. 3 - Consider a collection Al,... , Ak of mutually...Ch. 3 - Consider a communication source that transmits...

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