BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213
BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213

Solutions

Chapter 33, Problem 33.1QAP

(a) >

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The laboratory unit operation will be listed that will be used for ascertaining the presence or absence of lead in flakes of dry paint.

Concept introduction:

The sequential steps of the unit operations which are used for the laboratory experiments that are helpful in determining the required and correct results.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 33.1QAP

The sequential steps of unit operations which are used in ascertaining the presence or absence of lead in flakes of dry paint are:

Collection of samples, preparation of laboratory sample, dissolving of sample, changing of chemical form, measurement of property, calculation of results and estimation of reliability.

Explanation of Solution

The following steps will be used for the experiment in ascertaining the presence or absence of lead in flakes of dry paint-

  • Collect sample- In this step, the sample of dry paint will be collected.
  • Preparation of laboratory sample- In this step, preparation of the sample by grinding and mixing will be done.
  • Dissolving of sample- In this step, sample will be heated with oxidizing acid after the grinding and mixing process. Later, the heating solution water will be added to dilute the solution.
  • Changing of chemical form- This step is somehow not required because there is no need to change the chemical form.
  • Measurement of property- In this step, the final solution is transferred to the ICP or inductively coupled plasma for its measurement and detection.
  • Calculation of results- In this step, the obtained result that is spectrum of the lead is compared with standard result of spectrum.
  • Estimation of reliability- Finally a rough estimation is to be drawn to determine the amount of lead level which concludes the presence or absence of the lead in the flakes of dry paint.

Therefore, the above sequential laboratory steps are used for ascertaining the presence or absence of lead in flakes of dry paint.

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The laboratory unit operation will be listed that will be used to determine the iron content of multiple-vitamin and mineral tablets.

Concept introduction:

The sequential steps of the unit operations which are used for the laboratory experiments that are helpful in the determination of the required and correct results.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 33.1QAP

The unit operations which are used in determining of the iron content of multiple-vitamin and mineral tablets are −

Acquire sample, Preparation of laboratory sample, dissolving of sample, changing of chemical form, Eliminate interferences, Measurement of property, Calculation of results and Estimation of reliability.

Explanation of Solution

The following steps will be used for the experiment in determining the iron content of multiple-vitamin and mineral tablets-

  • Acquire sample − In this step, the sample that is multiple-vitamin and mineral tablet will be collected.
  • Preparation of laboratory sample − In this step, the sample will be prepared by grinding the multiple-vitamin and mineral tablets which are then transferred to the small container and weight of the prepared sample will be calculated.
  • Dissolve sample − In this step, the prepared sample will be heated with the solution of hydrochloric acid.
  • Changing of chemical formula − In this step, the pH level of the solution will be maintained by the addition of the measured quantity of potassium thiocynate.
  • Eliminate interferences − In this step, solution insoluble particle or residues are filtered off from the sample solution and then the small part of the solution is transferred to the small container.
  • Measurement of property − In this step, the absorbance of the solution will be determined by using the spectrophotometer instrument.
  • Calculate results − In this step, the calibration curve will be drawn by using the iron standards and the concentration of unknown iron will be determined by using the least square analysis method.
  • Estimate reliability −Finally the obtained results will be used for the calculation of the standard deviation and which helps in the estimation of 90-95% accuration level.
Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

The laboratory unit operation will be listed that will be used for determining glucose concentration in patient’s blood.

Concept introduction:

The sequential steps of unit operations which are used for the laboratory experiments which are helpful in the determination of the required and correct results.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 33.1QAP

The unit operations which are used in the determination of the glucose concentration in patient’s blood proceeds as-

Acquire sample, Measurement of property, Calculation of results and Estimation of reliability

Explanation of Solution

The following steps will be used for the experiment in determining the glucose concentration in patient’s blood-

  • Acquire sample − In this step, the patient’s blood sample will be collected.
  • Preparation of laboratory sample − This step is not required as there is no requirement for the formation of blood sample separately.
  • Dissolve sample − This step is also not required.
  • Changing of chemical formula − This step is also not required because there is no requirement to change the chemical formula of the blood.
  • Eliminate interferences − This step is also not required.
  • Measurement of property − In this step, immobilized enzyme strip is required on which the drop of patient’s blood will be transferred and with the help of glucose meter, the level of glucose will be counted.
  • Calculate results − In this step, the level of glucose in the patient blood will be counted by using the glucose meter.
  • Estimate reliability −Finally, the estimated reliability of the results is obtained by generating the replicated results.

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